美国文学总结(1800字)

来源:m.ttfanwen.com时间:2018.3.31

美国文学

一、 殖民地时期的美国文学

1、 约翰 史密斯:美国文学的第一个作家,《关于弗吉尼亚的真实叙述》;

2、 纳撒尼尔 沃德:《北美的阿格瓦姆鞋匠》,北美讽刺文学第一笔;

3、 威廉 布拉德福德:美国历史之父,《普利茅斯种植园史》

4、 安妮、布拉德斯特利特 《第十个缪斯》

5、 迈克尔 威格尔斯沃斯

6、 爱德华 泰勒 长诗《上帝对其选民有影响的决定》

7、 乔纳森 爱德华兹:大觉醒运动中主要的思想家;

二、 南北战争时期的美国文学()

1、 富兰克林

2、 托马斯、潘恩:《长诗》

3、 托马斯、杰弗逊:《独立宣言》

4、 约翰、伍尔曼:《日记》

5、 飞利浦、弗瑞诺:美国独立革命的诗人

6、 飞利浦、惠特利:美国文学史上第一位出版诗集的黑人女诗人,了不起的诗才之称,

《胡塞先生和棺木》;

7、 威廉、邓拉普:美国戏剧之父

8、 华盛顿、欧文:美国文学之父,《见闻札记》《睡古传说》《温克尔》

9、 詹姆斯 菲尼莫尔 库珀:《开拓者》《最后一个莫干希人》《探路人》

10、威廉、布莱恩特:美国的华兹华斯,《诗选》《黄色的紫罗兰》《致水鸟》

11、爱伦、坡:侦探小说的鼻祖,《厄舍古厦的倒塌》《乌鸦》

12、艾默生:超验主义,

13、大卫梭罗

14、亨利、费朗罗:《伊凡吉林》歌颂爱情;《海华沙之歌》第一部描写印第安人的史诗;

15、纳撒尼尔、霍桑:《范肖》《带七个尖角阁的房子》《福谷传奇》以第一人称叙述;

16、麦尔维尔

17、斯托夫人的代表作《汤姆叔叔的小屋》

18、惠特曼:free verse;草叶集;

三、 第一次世界大战时期的美国文学

1、 豪威尔斯是美国现实主义文学的奠基人,其代表作诗《塞拉斯 拉帕姆的发迹》;

2、 亨利、詹姆斯:《黛西 米勒》;《贵妇人的画像》《美国人》

3、 马克 吐温

4、 赫姆林加兰:加兰是“乡土文学作家”的重要代表,《大路》,80年代美国的真实写照;

5、 弗兰克 诺里斯:开创自然主义的先河,代表作《章鱼》;

6、 欧亨利:美国现代短篇小说的创始人;

7、 杰克伦敦:自然主义,《马丁伊登》自传体小说

8、 西奥多、德莱赛:美国现代小说的先驱,20世纪美国文学中第一位杰出的作家;《嘉莉妹妹》,《欲望三部曲》:《金融家》《巨人》《斯多葛》;

9、 艾米丽 迪金森:现代英美诗歌的先驱;

四、 一战到二战时期的美国文学

1、 罗伯特 弗罗斯特:四次获得普利策奖

2、 庞德:印象派诗歌运动的主要力量;

3、 爱德华、肯明斯:视觉诗歌的创始人;

4、 尤金、奥尼尔:《天边外》早起作品;《送冰人来了》;《长夜漫漫路迢迢》,

19xx年获得诺贝尔文学奖;

5、 辛克莱、刘易斯:19xx年获得诺贝尔文学奖;第一个获得该奖项的美国作家,

《大街》《巴比特》

6、 海明威:

7、 菲茨杰拉德:《人间天堂》《了不起的盖茨比》《夜色温柔》

8、 赛珍珠:《大地》19xx年美国历史上第一个获得诺贝尔文学奖的女性作家;

9、 约翰、斯坦贝克:20世纪美国文坛最重要的作家之一,19xx年获得诺贝尔文学奖;

《天堂的牧场》《煎饼坪》《愤怒的葡萄》《月落》《烦躁的冬天》

10、福克纳:《喧哗与骚动》 《寓言》获得普利策奖;

最重要的作品三部曲:《村子》《小镇》《大宅》

11、兰斯顿 休斯:哈莱姆的桂冠诗人

五、 二战以后的美国文学

1、 杰克、开鲁亚克:垮掉的一代,《在路上》

2、 塞林格:垮掉的一代的重要作家,《麦田的守望者》

3、 纳博科夫:《洛丽塔》

4、 约瑟夫、海勒:《第22条军规》

5、 库特、冯尼格:黑色幽默手法;

6、 威廉、斯泰轮:《苏菲的选择》

7、 辛格:美国犹太作家,19xx年诺贝尔文学奖 《路柏林的魔术师》

8、 索尔、贝娄:19xx年诺贝尔文学奖;《晃来晃去的人》

9、 菲利普、罗斯:《美国牧歌》,获普利策奖;

10、托尼、莫里森:19xx年获得诺贝尔,第一位美国黑人作家;

《最蓝的眼睛》《所罗门之歌》

11、田纳西、威廉斯:《欲望号街车》《热铁皮屋顶上的猫》

12、阿瑟、米勒:《推销员之死》


第二篇:美国文学总结 13700字

Chapter1is the practices and beliefs of the puritans. The Puritans were originally members of a division of the protestant church. They accepted the doctrine of predestination, original sin , total depravity and limited atonement through a special infusion of grace from God. As culture heritage, American Puritanism also had a enduring influence on American literature.

1.The Colonial Period stretches from the settlement of North America in the early seventeenth century through the end of the eighteenth.

2.The American Puritans accepted the doctrine(教义) of predestination, original sin and total depravity, and limited atonement.

3.作者Anne Bradstreet(安妮.布雷特兹里特)---known as the “Tenth Muse”,作品Comtemplation《沉思录》。

节选9 I heard the merry grasshopper蝈蝈 then sing,

The black-clad cricket蛐蛐 bear a second part乐章,

They kept one tune调子, and played on the same string弦,

Seeming to glory光荣 in their little art.

Shall creatures abject thus their voices raise?

And in their kind resound回音(=repeat; because they have no ability to creat) their Master(God)'s praise:

Whilst I, as mute哑巴, can warble forth no higher lays.

4.作者 Philip Freneau(菲利普.弗伦诺)作品The Wild Honey Suckle《金银花》

Fair flower, that dost so comely grow,

Hid in this silent,dull retreat,

Untouched thy honeyed blossoms blow,

Unseen thy little branches greet:

No roving(=wandering) foot shall crush thee here,

No busy hand provoke a tear.

By Nature's self in white arrayed,(means God has made you a white flower) She(Nature) bade thee (flower)shun the vulger eye,

And planted here the guardian shade,

And sent soft waters murmuring by;

Thus quietly thy(flower) summer goes,

Thy days declining to repose.

Smit(overcharm) with those chams,that must decay,

I grieve to see your future doom(宿命);

They died--nor were those flowers more gay, The flowers that did in Eden bloom;

Unpitying frosts,and Autumn's power

Shall leave no vestige of this flower.

From morning suns and evening dews

At first thy little being came:

If nothing once,you nothing lose,

For when you die you are the same;

The frail duration of flower.

(Freneau)

野忍冬花(金银花)

菲利浦·弗瑞诺 (黄杲炘译)

美好的花呀,你长得:这么秀丽,

却藏身在这僻静沉闷的地方——

甜美的花儿开了却没人亲昵,

招展的小小枝梢也没人观赏;

没游来荡去的脚来把你踩碎,

没东攀西摘的手来催你落泪。

大自然把你打扮得一身洁白,

她叫你避开庸俗粗鄙的目光,

她布置下树荫把你护卫起来,

又让潺潺的柔波淌过你身旁;

你的夏天就这样静静地消逝,

这时候你日见萎蔫终将安息。

那些难免消逝的美使我销魂,

想起你未来的结局我就心疼,

别的那些花儿也不比你幸运——

虽开放在伊甸园中也已凋零,

无情的寒霜再加秋风的威力,

会叫这花朵消失得一无踪迹。

朝阳和晚露当初曾把你养育,

让你这小小的生命来到世上,

原来若乌有,就没什么可失去,

因为你的死让你同先前一样;

这来去之间不过是一个钟点——

这就是脆弱的花享有的天年。

Chapter2

5.作者 Jonathan Edwards(乔纳森.爱德华)作品 Personal Narrative《自述》

―I felt an ardency of soul to be…emptied and annihilated; to lie in the dust and to be full of Christ alone; to love Him(God) with a holy and pure love; to trust in him; to live upon him; to serve and follow him; and to be perfectly sanctified and made pure, with a divine and heavenly purity.‖

6.作者 Benjamin Franklin (本加明.弗兰克林) 作品 Poor Richard’s Almanac; The Autobiography of Benjamin Frankin---a puritan document.it is puritan because it is a record of self-examination and self-improvement.

Chapter3

7.The Romantic period stretches from the end of the eighteenth century through the outbreak of the Civil war.

8.作者 Washington Irving(华盛顿.欧文)“The Style is the man”作品Rip Van Winkle《瑞普.凡.温克尔》The Legend of Sleepy Hollow 《睡谷传奇》内容、故事梗概。

9.James Fenimore Cooper(詹姆斯.费尼莫尔.库柏)(This ambivalence 矛盾心理 can be seen from the conflict between Leatherstocking and Judge Temple in The Pioneers),the “Leatherstocking Tales”---The Pioneers拓荒者; The Last of the Mohicans最后的莫西干人;The Prairie平原;The Pathfinder探路者;The Deerslayer杀戮者

Chapter4 Transcendentalism

10.Nature(by Ralph Waldo Emerson)’s voice pushed American Romanticism into a new phase, the phase of New England Transcendentalism, the summit of American Romanticism.

11.The major features of New England Transcendentalism : First, the Transcendentalists placed emphasis on spirit, or the Oversoul, as the most important thing in the universe; Secondly, the Transcendentalists stressed the importance of the individual; Thirdly, the Transcendentalists offered a fresh perception of nature as symbolic of the Spirit or God; Forth,brotherhood of man.

12.作者 Ralph Waldo Emerson (call for “The American Scholar” and it was regarded as “American Declaration of Intellectual Independence”)作品Nature

Standing on the bare ground, my head bathed by the blithe(happy) air and uplifted into infinite space, all mean egoism vanishes.I become a transparent eyeball;I am nothing;I see all; the currents of the Universal Being (God)circulate through me; I am part or particle of God.

13.作者 Henry David Thoreau 作品Walden《瓦尔登湖》--- a book on self-culture and human perfectibility.

Chapter5

14.作者Nathaniel Hawthorne 作品 The Scarlet Letter故事背景17th century的New England.主人公名:Hester;Dimmesdale(name suggests “weakness” →indeterminacy, lack of insight, and lack of will。He was a scholar of some renown at Oxford University—aloof( would not have much natural sympathy for ordinary man));Chillingworth(Name suggests “chill”, in fact he is cold and inhuman and thus brings a “chill” to Hester’s and Dimmesdale’s lives。His twisted, stooped, deformed shoulders mirror his distorted soul,he is a selfish husband, his death is a result of his nature);Pearl(She is the living version of the scarlet letter (she is the physical consequence of sexual sin) She represents not only “sin” but also the vital spirit and passion that engendered that sin, thus she is also a blessing.)。女主人公:Hester Prynne(---passionate,

brave, independent, intelligent, capable, a motherly figure who moderates her tendency to be rush, caring for the poor and brings them food and clothing, also victims under the town fathers’ sexism). A—Adultery犯得罪是Lust. 第一只到达美洲大陆的船---五月花号(May Flower Boat)

15.Like Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and Henry James after him,Hawthrone repeatedly complained about “the poverty of materials” in a land( United States)

16.In craftmanship perhaps only The Great Gatsby can touch it in American Literature.

17.作者 Herman Melville 作品 Moby Dick《大白鲸》---Like the whale, only the surface of the ocean is available for human observation and interpretation, while its depths conceal unknown and unknowable truths. Furthermore, relationship with the Christian God (or any other god, for that matter): God is unknowable and cannot be pinned down.

Symbolism:①Ahab(captain):embodies all of the evil. After the loss of his leg, he feels his pride has been woumded. He get so angry that he almost losses his sanity and humanity and become a devilish creature. He bears no objection, and resolves to take revenge even at the risk of the lives of the crew.②Moby Dick is an imperson force and the representation of God. The whiteness of it shows that it is horror, unknowable things, or unlucky things.

Chapter6

18.作者Walt Whitman 作品Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking从永久摇荡的摇篮里;【When Lilacs last in the Dooryard Bloom’d 当后院的丁香花盛开时;O Captain! My Captain!船长,我的船长!】为了纪念林肯

19. “free verse”写作特点:parallelism 对仗 ;phonetic recurrence语音重述

节选O Captain! My Captain!

O CAPTAIN! my Captain! our fearful trip is done;

The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won;

The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,

While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring:

But O heart! heart! heart!

O the bleeding drops of red,

Where on the deck my Captain lies,

Fallen cold and dead.

O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;

Rise up—for you the flag is flung—for you the bugle trills;

For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths—for you the shores a-crowding;

For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;

Here Captain! dear father!

This arm beneath your head;

It is some dream that on the deck,

You’ve fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still;

My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will;

The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done;

From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won;

Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells!

But I, with mournful tread,

Walk the deck my Captain lies,

Fallen cold and dead.

20.作者Emily Dickinson 作品My life closed twice before its close

我从未失去过这么多但有两次;Because I could not stop for Death因为我不能停下来等待死神;Wild Nights-Wild Nights狂风夜;The narrow Fellow in the Grass草丛中的细家伙

节选①My life closed twice before its close;

It (life)yet remains to see

If immortality unveil揭开

A third event to me .

So huge ,so hopeless to conceive

As these that twice fell ,

Parting is all we know of heaven ,生死离别是天堂的全部含义

And all we need of hell.是我们对地狱的全部要求

②Because I could not stop for Death

He(God) kindly stopped for me;

The carriage(conffin棺材) held but just ourselves And Immortality.

We slowly drove, he knew no haste,

And I had put away

My labor(job,ambition), and my leisure too,

For his civilitya(殷勤).

We passed the school, where children strove

At recess, in the ring;

We passed the fields of gazing grain(闪闪发光的麦田---中年), We passed the setting sun.

Or rather, be passed us;

The dews(露珠) grew quivering and chill,

For only gossamer my gown,

My tippet(披肩) only tulle.(薄纱)

We paused before house that seemed

A swelling of the ground(坟墓tomb);

The roof was scarcely visible,

The cornice but a mound.

Since then 'tis centuries, and yet each

Feels shorter than the day

I first surmised (沉思,猜想)the horses' heads

Were toward eternity.

③A narrow fellow in the grass

A narrow fellow in the grass

Occasionally rides;

You may have met him,--did you not,

His notice sudden is.

The grass divides as with a comb,

A spotted shaft is seen;

And then it closes at your feet

And opens further on.

He likes a boggy acre,

A floor too cool for corn.

Yet when a child, and barefoot,

I more than once, at morn,

Have passed, I thought, a whip-lash

Unbraiding in the sun,--

When, stooping to secure it,

It wrinkled, and was gone.

Several of nature's people

I know, and they know me;

I feel for them a transport

Of cordiality;

But never met this fellow,

Attended or alone,

Without a tighter breathing,

And zero at the bone

④Wild Nights-Wild Nights

Wild Nights –Wild Nights

Were I with thee(you)

Wild Nights should be

Our Luxury!

Futile(无用的) –the Winds -

To a Heart(my heart) in port (港湾)

{Done with the Compass(your lover)-

Done with the chart!}---I have guidence in my life

Rowing in Eden –the room adhere you and your lover stay

Ah .the Sea---the women body !

Might I but moor

Tonight –In thee!

Chapter7

作者Edgar Allan Poe 作品The Raven乌鸦;The Fall of the house of Usher恶舍府的倒塌 节选The Raven

Once upon a midnight(time) dreary ,while I pondered ,weak and weary ,

Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore –

While I nodded(打盹) ,nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,

As of some one gently rapping ,rapping at my chamber door—

―’Tis some visitor, ‖I muttered ,‖tapping my chamber door—

Only this and nothing more.‖

The Fall of the house of Usher

主人公Roderick Usher

思考题:为什么爱伦坡到了20世纪变得受欢迎了?P111-P112第2段

The short story: Poe says the short story must be of such length as to be read at one setting (brevity), so as to ensure the totality of impression, the very first sentence ought to help to bring out the “single effect” of the story. No word should be used which does not contribute to the “pre-established” design of the work (compression). A tale should reveal some logical truth with “the fullest satisfaction” and should end with the last sentence, leaving a sense of finality with the reader.

Chapter8

21. The representatives of the Realism: ①William Dean Howells ②Henry James ③Mark Twain

22.作者 Henry James 作品 The American美国人;Daisy Miller戴西.米乐;The portrait of a Lady贵妇的画像

23.James enjoyed juxtaposing American moral innocence with the somber decadence of Europe .

24. The Definition of Stream of Consciousness: It is the style of writing that attempts to imitate the natural flow of a character’s thoughts, feelings, reflections, memories and mental images as the character experiences them.

Chapter9

25.The Definition of Local Colorism:The detailed representation in prose fiction of the setting, dialect, customs, dress and ways of thinking and feeling which are distinctive of a particular region. 代表人物:

Bret Harte and Mark Twain.

26.作者Mark Twain(原名preudonym:Samuel Langhorne Clemens) 作品 The Gilded Age镀金时代;The Adventures of Tom Sawyer汤姆索亚历险记;The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn哈克贝利费恩历险记(背景 the civil war);Life on the Mississippi 在密西西比河上

节选

I took the sack of corn meal and took it to where the canoe was hid, and shoved the vined and branches apart and put it in; then I done the same with the side of bacon;then the whisky-jug. I took all the coffee and sugar there was, and all the ammunition; I took the wadding; I took the bucket and gourd; took a dipper and a tin cup, and my old saw and two blankets, and the skillet and the coffee-pot. I took fish lines and matches and other things---everything that was worth a cent. I cleaned out the place. I wanted an ax, but there wasn’t any, only the one out at the woodpile, and I knowed why I was going to leave that. I fetched out the gun, and now I was done.(选自Mark Twain---The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)

思考:两本历险记中主人公小男孩的比较?

Chapter10

27. The Darwinian concepts : “the survival of the fittest” “the human beast” 适者生存、人的兽性。

28.作者 Stephen Crane 作品 The Red Badge of Courage红色英勇勋章

29.作者Theodore Dreiser(西奥多.德莱赛)作品 Sister Carrie(女主角的两个情人Druet 和Hurstwood); An American Tragedy美国悲剧

30.作者Jack London 作品The Call of the Wild野性的呼唤;Martin Eden马丁.伊甸

31.作者O.Henry 作品 The Gift of the Magi麦琪的礼物;The Cop and the Anthem警察与赞美诗 He always created the special ends described as ―his stories.

2008-12-31 Angelina

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