研究生英语自评提纲(400字)

来源:m.ttfanwen.com时间:2016.4.18

自评提纲

可只写中文,更提倡中英文对照。 字数不限,但求用心。

1、本学期对英语课程的投入程度,如:旷课现象是否严重、完成作业所花费的精力和时间、有无抄袭的情形、为了完成作业是否与同学积极讨论或向比自己水平高的人请教、是否努力查阅相关资料以确保作业完成的质量等。

2、学习态度有没有出现令自己欣喜的质的变化?如从最初对家庭作业抱怨连连到乐于完成家庭作业,甚至为自己布置作业,并且在克服重重困难完成某个学习任务之后,能产生一种强烈的自豪感和成就感。最根本的是,有没有认清英语学习的实质?

3、对于科学的英语学习方法是否进行了更深一层的思考?对于现行的英语教与学的模式是否进行过反思?如果有,得出的结论是什么?换句话说,你心目中最理想的教学模式是什么?

4、综合出勤、课堂表现、作业完成情况、思想品德等方面为自己的表现问心无愧地打一个分数,再结合现实考虑(如奖学金、绩点等)打一个有可能让自己“问心有愧”但确实渴望得到的理想分数。


第二篇:20xx年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语一试题及参考答案点评 59800字

20xx年全国硕士研究生入考试英语(课程)一试题

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

We have more genes in common with people we pick to be our friends than with strangers.

Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study publishedfrom the University of California and Yale University in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 .

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5.

While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, "Most people do not even 7their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."

The team 9 developed a "friendship score" which can predict who will be your friend based on their genes.

The study also found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10, as the team suggests, it draws us 11similar environments but there is more to it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 "functional kinship" of being friends with 14 !

One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor.

The findings do not simply corroborate people's 18to befriend those of similar et 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects.

1.[A] what

[B] why

[C] how

[D] when

2.[A] defended

[B] concluded

[C] withdrawn

[D] advised

3.[A] for

[B] with

[C] by

[D] on

4.[A] separated

[B] sought

[C] compared

[D] connected

5.[A] tests

[B] objects

[C] samples

[D] examples

6.[A] insignificant

[B] unexpected

[C] unreliable

[D] incredi ble

7.[A] visit

[B] miss

[C] know

[D] seek

8.[A] surpass

[B] influence

[C] favor

[D] resemble

9.[A] again

[B] also

[C] instead

[D] thus

10.[A] Meanwhile

[B] Furthermore

[C] Likewise

[D] Perhaps

11.[A] about

[B] to

[C] from

[D] like

12.[A] limit

[B] observe

[C] confuse

[D] drive

13.[A]according to

[B] ratherthan

[C] regardlessof

[D] alongwith

14.[A] chances

[B] responses

[C] benefits

[D] missions

15.[A] faster

[B] slower

[C] later

[D] earlier

16.[A] forecast

[B] remember

[C] express

[D] understand

17.[A] unpredictable

[B] contributory

[C] controllable

[D] disruptive

18.[A] tendency

[B] decision

[C] arrangement

[D] endeavor

19.[A] political

[B] religious

[C] ethnic

[D] economic

20.[A] see

[B] show

[C] prove

[D] tell

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text1

King JuanCarlos of Spain once insited” kings don’t abdicate, they die in their sleep.” But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recenet Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So does the Spanish crisis suggestthat monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, withtheir magnificent uniforms andmajestic lifestyles?

The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarized, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above” mere”politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity.

Itis this apparenttranscendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of state. And so, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the mostmonarch- infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra).But unlike their absolutist counterpartsin the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult searchfor a non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history-and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warming of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses(or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style.The danger will come with Charles. Who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of theworld. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service- as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.

21.According to the first two paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

[A] used to enjoy high public support

[B] was unpopular among European royals

[C] eased his relationship with his rivals

[D] ended his reign in embarrassment

22.Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly

[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

[C] to give voters more public figures to look up to

[D] due to their everlasting political embodiment

23.Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth

[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies

[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families

[D] The nobility’s adherence to their privileges

24. The British royals ”have most of fear” because Charles

[A] takes a tough line on political issues

[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised

[C] takes republicans as his potential allies

[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

25.Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

[D] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats.

Text2

JUST HOW much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court is only just coming to grips with that question. On Tuesday,it will consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phonewithout a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumption that authorities may search through the effects of suspects at the time of their arrest. Even if the justices are tempted, the state argues, it is hard for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, that the justices can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone — a vast storehouse of digital information — is similar to, say, rifling through a suspect’s purse. The court has ruled that police don’t violate the Fourth Amendment when they sift through the wallet or pocketbook of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing,” meanwhile, means that police officers could conceivably access even more information with a few swipes on a touchscreen.

Americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy. But keeping sensitive information on these devices is increasingly a requirement of normal life. Citizens still have a right to expect private documents to remain private and protected by the Constitution’s prohibition on unreasonable searches.

As so often is the case, stating that principle doesn’t ease the challenge of line-drawing. In many

cases, it would not be overly onerous for authorities to obtain a warrant to search through phone contents. They could still trump Fourth Amendment protections when facing severe, exigent circumstances, such as the threat of immediate harm, and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while a warrant is pending. The court, though, may want to allow room for police to cite situations where they are entitled to more leeway.

But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor who blogs on The Post’s Volokh Conspiracy,comparesthe explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a virtual necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

26. The Supreme court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

[A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant.

[B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized.

[C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.

[D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

[A] tolerance.

[B] indifference.

[C] disapproval.

[D] cautiousness.

28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is comparable to

[A] getting into one’s residence.

[B] handing one’s historical records.

[C] scanning one’s correspondences.

[D] going through one’s wallet.

29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.

[B] the court is giving police less room for action.

[C] phones are used to store sensitive information.

[D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected.

30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

(A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

(B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.

(C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution.

(D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered.

Text3

The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings.

“Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,” writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors (SBoRE). Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal’s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manuscripts.

Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: “The creation of the ‘statistics board’ was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science’s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.”

Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to “play primarily an advisory role.” He agreed to join because he “found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their

approach after Science.”

31.According to Nancy Koehn,office language has become

[A]more emotional

[B]more object

[C]less energetic

[D]less stratcgic

32.”Team”oriented corporate vocabulary is closely related to

[A]historical incidents

[B]gender difference

[C]sport culture

[D]athletic executives

33.Khurana believes that the importation of terminology to

[A]revive historical terms

[B]promote company image

[C]foster corporate cooperation

[D]strengthen cmployee loyalty

34.It can bo inferred that Lean In .

[A]voices for working women

[B]appeals to passionate workholics

[C]triggers debates among mommies

[D]parises motivated employees

35.Which of the following statements is true about office speak?

[A]Managers admire it avoid it

[B] Linguists believe it to be nonsense

[C]Companies find it to be fundamental

[D]Regular people mock it but accept it

Text4

Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch’s daughter, Elisabeth, spoke of the “unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions”. Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only “sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the market. But “it’s us, human beings, we the people who create the society we want, not profit”.

Driving her point home, she continued: “It’s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous goals for capitalism and freedom.” This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International, she thought, making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking.

As the hacking trial concludes—finding guilty one ex-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones, and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge—the wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands. Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people. This is hacking on an industrial scale, as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This saga still unfolds.

In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place. One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, how little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired how the stories arrived. The core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing.

In today’s world, it has become normal that well-paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organisations that they run. Perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business-friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice, fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability.

The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding, to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists

got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers.

36. Accordign to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by

(A) the consequences of the current sorting mechanism.

(B) companies’ financial loss due to immoral practices

(C) governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues.

(D) the wide misuse of integrity among institutions.

37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that

(A) Glenn Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime.

(B) more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking.

(C) Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge.

(D) phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions.

38. The author believes that Rebekah Brooks’s defence

(A) revealed a cunning personality.

(B) centered on trivial issues.

(C) was hardly convincing.

(D) was part of a conspiracy.

39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows

(A) generally distorted values.

(B) unfair wealth distribution.

(C) a marginalized lifestyle.

(D) a rigid moral code.

40 Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph?

(A) The quality of writings is of primary importance.

(B) Common humanity is central to news reporting.

(C) Moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper.

(D) Journalists need stricter industrial regulations.

Part B

How does your reading proceed? Clearly you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them, drawing on your implicit knowledge of English grammar. (41)_____________________________________You begin to infer a context for the text, for instance by making decisions about what kind of speech event is involved: who is making the utterance, to whom, when and where.

The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of comprehension. But they show comprehension to consist not just of passive assimilation but of active engagement in inference and problem-solving. You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific evidence and clues; (42)_________________________________

Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or ‘true’ meaning that can be read off and checked for accuracy, or some timeless relation of the text to the world.

(43)_________________________________________

Such background material inevitably reflects who we are. (44)____________________________ This doesn’t, however, make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different historical periods. Place and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same words on the page—including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns—debates about texts can play an important in the social discussion of beliefs and values.

How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it. (45) _________________________________________Such dimensions of reading suggest — as other introduced later in the book will also do — that we bring an implicit(often unacknowledged)agenda to any act of reading. It doesn’t then necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced and more worthwhile than another. Ideally, different kinds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they make up the reading component of your overall literacy, or relationship to your surrounding textual environment.

A. Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfils the requirement of a give

course? Reading it simply for pleasure? Skimming it for information? Ways of reading on a train or in bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room.

B. Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender, ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards certain interpretations but at the same time obscure or even close off others.

C. If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the context. On the ash emption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse entities as well as possible links between them.

D. In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meaning or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had: These might be the ones author intended.

E. You make further inferences, for instance, about how the text may be significant to you, or about its validity — inferences that from the basis of personal response for which the author will inevitably be far less responsible.

F. In plays, novels and narrative poems, characters speak as constructs created the author, not necessarily as mouthpieces for the author’s own thoughts.

G. Rather, we ascribe meanings to texts on the basis of interaction between what we might call textual and contextual material: between kinds of organization or pattering we perceive in a text’s formal structures (so especially its language structures) and various kinds of background, social knowledge, belief and attitude that we bring to the text.

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 pionts)

Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide if emigration- one of the great folk wanderings of history- swept from Europe to America. (46) This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.

(47) The United States is the product of two principal forces- the immigration of European people with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempt to transplant their habits and traditions to new world. (48) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied

national groups upon once another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, has a character that was distinctly American.

(49) The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th-and- 16th century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six-to twelve-week voyage, they survived on barely enough food allotted to them. Many of the ships were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes storms blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought unbearably long delay.

To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief. Said one recorder of events, “ The air at twelve leagues’ distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden.” The colonists’ first glimpse of the new land was a sight of dense woods. (50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber??

Section III Writing

Part A

51.Directions:

You are going to host a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members.

You should state reasons for you recommendation.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming”instead.

Do not write the address.(10 points)

Part B

52.Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following picture. In your essay, you should

(1) Describe the picture briefly,

(2) Interpret its intended meaning, and

(3) Give your comments.

20xx年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语一试题及参考答案点评

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(20 point)

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2015考研英语一试题答案及解析

20xx年12月28日 16:08

来源:中国教育网

2015研究生入学统一考试英语一试题答案+解析

Section 1 Use of English

Directions:Readthe following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank andmark [A],

[B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 。

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5 。

While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."

The team also developed a "friendship score" which can predict who will be your friend based on their genes。

The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 , as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than "functional kinship" of being friends with 14 !

One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor。

The findings do not simply corroborate people’s 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects。

1 A what B why C how D when

2 A defended B concluded C withdrawn D advised

3 A for B with C by D on

4 A separated B sought C compared D connected

5 A tests B objects C samples D examples

6 A insignificant B unexpected C unreliable D incredible

7 A visit B miss C know D seek

8 A surpass B influence C favor D resemble

9 A again B also C instead D thus

10 A Meanwhile B Furthermore C Likewise D Perhaps

11 A about B to C from D like

12 A limit B observe C confuse D drive

13 A according to B rather than C regardless of D along with

14 A chances B responses C benefits D missions

15 A faster B slower C later D earlier

16 A forecast B remember C express D understand

17 A unpredicted B contributory C controllable D disruptive

18 A tendency B decision C arrangement D endeavor

19 A political B religious C ethnic D economic

20 A see B show C prove D tell

答案解析

1、A what 本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第一个空考察表语从句的引导词。

2、B concluded 本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第二个空为针对从句谓语进行的词义考察。

3、D on 本句前半句的句意是:这项研究是一个基于1932个独特个体的基因组广谱分析。考察Conduct on词组,进行。从句意为:它对成对儿的非亲缘朋友和陌生人进行比较。

4、C compared 比较,根据上下文及后一句的same知道,比较为最佳。

5、C samples 词义题,样本,C为最佳选项。

6、A insignificant 词义题,1%,以及后面的not so转折,判断,A insignificant不显著,为最佳选项。

7、C know 句意为:一些人虽然并不认识他们第四代的表亲,但他们选择的朋友却和这些

亲戚颇有相似之处。

8、D resemble 词义题,和上一个空形成转折。

9、B also 上下文逻辑题,发现了,还发现了。Also为最佳选项。

10、D Perhaps 结合上下文:这一现象很难解释,后面接原因,原因“可能”是??最符合文章大意。

11、B to 介词题,意为:就像这个科研团队所发现的,这个因素不仅把我们带到详细的环境中来,更有一些深层次的影响。

12、D drive 词义题,根据上下文,对我们产生影响,驱使我们??drive为最佳选项。

13、B rather than 逻辑题,基因上相似的,功能上相似的,二者对立不能同时存在,rather than不是?而是最符合。

14、C benefits 跟“功能”搭配,选个褒义词,带来好处的,最佳。

15、A faster 词义题,根据后半句解释,这就是为什么“picked pace”加速,这里只能选faster,一些比另外一些进化得更快,符合文意。

16、D understand 词义题,这个研究可以帮助我们理解一个事实。

17、B contributory 本句意为:社会环境是最主要的一个因素。Contributory贡献,最佳。

18、A tendency 结合文章主旨,选择基因相似的人做朋友是普遍现象,tendency趋势倾向最符合。

19、C ethnic 同义替换,基因背景相似,种族的,民族的,最符合。

20、A see 本句意为:尽管所有的研究对象都取自欧洲血统,研究者也花心思确保了所有(用于比对的)朋友和陌生人也源自该血统中的同一支系。

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B,

C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted kings don’t abdicate, they die in their sleep. But

embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, dies the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the uniting is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?

The Spanish case previous arguments both for and against monarchy when public opinion is particularly. Polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity。

It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of states. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region is the world, with 10 kingdoms not counting Vatican city and Andorra. But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respect public figure。

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomes Piketty and other ecumenists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Prince and princess have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image。

While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example。

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-healed) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service—as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings of republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies。

21、according to the first two paragraphs, king Juan Carl of span

[A] used to enjoy high public support

[B] was unpopular among European royals

[C] ended his reign in embarrassment

[D] eased his relationship with his rivals

22、monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly

[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

[C] to give voters more public figures to look up to

[D] due to their everlasting political embodiment

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth。

[B] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families。

[C] The role of the nobility in modern democracies。

[D] The nobility’s adherence to their privileges。

24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

[A] takes a tough line on political issues。

[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised。

[C] takes republicans as his potential allies。

[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role。

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

[C] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

[D] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

解析:

21 D ended his reign in embarrassment

此题属于细节题。

根据关键词King Juan Carlos of Spain 定位到第一段第一和第二句。But embarrassing scandals?have forced him to eat his words and stand down. 此处stand down译为放弃席位。因此D ended his reign in embarrassment是原文内容的同义替换。

22 A owing to their undoubted and respectable status

此题属于细节题。

根据关键词定位到第三段第一句it is this apparent ?that explains ?as heads of state。和第三句But unlike their absolutist?most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for ...respected public figure. 绝大多数皇室家族使得选民避免了寻找受人尊敬的公众人物的麻烦。因此A owing to their undoubted and respectable status是原文内容的同义替换。

23 B the role of the nobility in modern democracies

此题属于细节题。

根据关键词定位到第四段最后一句话?it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states 奇怪的是有钱的贵族家庭仍然处于现代民主国家的核心地位。因此B the role of the nobility in modern democracies是原文内容的同义替换。

24 B fails to change his lifestyle as advised

此题属于细节题。

根据关键词”have most of fear”定位到第六段,Charles定位到最后一段的地二句Charles 后面who引导定语从句who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and ?world因此B fails to change his lifestyle as advised是原文内容的同义替换。

25 C Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs

此题属于全文主旨题。

着眼全文,通篇都在围绕monarchs展开。第一段由Carlos引出当今君主制面临的危机。因此Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs是全文内容的精确概括。

Text 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now

consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest。

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies。

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants。

They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone-- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or pocketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing,” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier。

But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now。

26. The Supreme Court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

[A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant。

[B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized。

[C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents。

[D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones。

27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

[A] tolerance。

[B] indifference。

[C] disapproval。

[D] cautiousness。

28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is comparable to

[A] getting into one’s residence。

[B] handing one’s historical records。

[C] scanning one’s correspondences。

[D] going through one’s wallet。

29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed。

[B] the court is giving police less room for action。

[C] phones are used to store sensitive information。

[D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected。

30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

(A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly。

(B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution。

(C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution。

(D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered。

T2

26 答案B check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized

解析:细节题。根据自然段定位原则,定位到首段。根据题干关键词supreme court,whether精确定位到第一段最后一句whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone?.,与选项进行对应,即为B在不授权的情况下检查嫌疑人的电话信息。注意A选项应是search contents。

27 答案 C disapproval

解析:态度题。根据题干California’s argument定位到第二段最后一句及第三段首句,这些句子中提到hard? recklessly modest?等负向词,表达的是负面态度。看选项属于负面的就是disapproval。A 容忍,B冷漠是典型错误,D粗心。

28 答案A getting into one’s residence

解析:细节题。题干问:作者认为搜索电话薄就相当于什么?根据段落界定原则定位到第四段转折处,提到But exploring one’s smart phone is more like entering his or her home。与选项对应,A中的residence对应home,是原文的同意替换。注意D选项不是作者的观点,不能将文中人物观点当作作者观点。

29 答案D citizens’ privacy is not effective protected

解析:细节题。根据题干定位到5段和6段,题干问作者最关注的是什么,即是相应段落的段落中心。因此,该题表面是细节题,实质为段落核心。5段首句为中心句提到,应采取措施保护数据隐私;6段又继续陈述原则的不恰当之处。根据这些内容,对应答案D 市民隐私未能得到有效保护。

30 答案 B New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution

解析:例证题。题干问的是引用Orin Kerr的目的是什么,即Orin Kerr是论据,其目的是论点。论点往往在论据的前面,所以要找例子前面的一句话,即New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections。与选项对应,就是B new technology是原词复现,require等同于demands,reinterpretation of the Constitution同义替换applications of the Constitution’s protections。

Text 3

The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings。

“Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,” writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors (SBoRE). Manu will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal’s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manuscripts。

Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: “The creation of the ‘statistics board’was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science’s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish。”

Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to “play primarily an advisory role。” He agreed to join because he “found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science。”

31. It can be learned from Paragraph I that

[A] Science intends to simplify its peer-review process。

[B]journals are strengthening their statistical checks。

[C]few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis。

[D]lack of data analysis is common in research projects。

32. The phrase ‘flagged up” (Para.2)is the closest in meaning to

[A]found。

[B]revised。

[C]marked

[D]stored

33. Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may

[A]pose a threat to all its peers

[B]meet with strong opposition

[C]increase Science’s circulation。

[D]set an example for other journals

34. David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now

A. adds to researchers’ workload。

B. diminishes the role of reviewers。

C. has room for further improvement。

D. is to fail in the foreseeable future。

35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

A. Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers

B. Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect

C. Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors’ Desks

D. Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science

Text 3

31. 答案 B journals are strengthening their statistical checks 段落推断题 考查的是段落中心句,定位在首段首句 The journal Science is adding an extra source at Peer-review process, editor-in- chief Marcia McNott announced today. 《科学》 杂志将要对同行评审过程增加额外的资源。与选项B同意替换。

32. 答案 C marked 词义句意题 根据所猜短语flagged up 所在句子的句意,手稿将被flagged up以供杂志编辑、现有的编辑评审委员会或外部同行审查。比较四个选项,只有C marked 被标记,符合题意。

33. 答案 D set an example for other journals 观点细节题 定位在四段末句 This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science. 这不仅对于《科学》 杂志本身的出版有影响,还有希望影响其它的出版社,这些出版社想继《科学》 杂志之后树立自己的典型形象。选项D是这句话的概括总结。

34. 答案 D has room for further improvement 观点细节题 定位在末段末句,Vaux says that Science’s idea to pass some papers to statisticians “has some merit, but a weakness is that ..。.”Vaux 认为《科学》 杂志的想法有一些好处,但是有个缺点是..。.这就说明这个想法是有进一步改进的空间的。

35. 答案 A Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers 主旨大意题 本文首段首句就是全文主题句,《科学》 杂志将要对同行评审过程增加额外的资源,而且全文其它各个段落都在围绕对这一想法不同专家的不同态度在论述,所以选项A是对全文中心的完整表达。

Text 4

Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch’s daughter, Elisabeth, spoke of the “unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions”. Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a

collective acceptance that the only “sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the market. But “it’s us, human beings, we the people who create the society we want, not profit”。

Driving her point home, she continued: “It’s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous goals for capitalism and freedom。” This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International, she thought, making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking。

As the hacking trial concludes—finding guilty one ex-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones, and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge—the wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands. Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people. This is hacking on an industrial scale, as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This saga still unfolds。

In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place. One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, how little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired how the stories arrived. The core of her successful defense was that she knew nothing。

In today’s world, it has become normal that well-paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run. Perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business-friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice, fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability。

The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding, to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers。

36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by

(A) the consequences of the current sorting mechanism。

(B) companies’ financial loss due to immoral practices

(C) governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues。

(D) the wide misuse of integrity among institutions。

37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that

(A) Glenn Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime。

(B) more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking。

(C) Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge。

(D) phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions。

38. The author believes that Rebekah Brooks’s defense

(A) revealed a cunning personality。

(B) centered on trivial issues。

(C) was hardly convincing。

(D) was part of a conspiracy。

39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows

(A) generally distorted values。

(B) unfair wealth distribution。

(C) a marginalized lifestyle。

(D) a rigid moral code。

40 Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph?

(A) The quality of writings is of primary importance。

(B) Common humanity is central to news reporting。

(C) Moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper。

(D) Journalists need stricter industrial regulations。

36. 答案A. The consequences of the current sorting mechanism. 因果细节题 题目问到Elisbeth 因什么而感到沮丧。定位在第一段第二句 Intergrity had collapsed, ..., because of a collective acceptance that the only “sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the market, 由于

社会中唯一的分类机制是利润和市场这一共同的观念,导致了正直这种道德品质的沦丧。

37. 答案 B more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking 段落推断题 定位到第三段第一句 As the hacking trial concludes.... the wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands 正如窃听案总结的那样,仍然存在更广泛的dearth of integrity 的事件,与选项B 对应。

38. 答案 C was hardly convincing 观点细节题 根据第四段第二句中astonishing,how little...,how little... She never ... 以及第三句中She knew nothing 的语气判断作者的态度是认为RB的辩护是没有说服力的。

39. 答案 A generally distorted values 观点细节题 题干定位在第五段第三句,答案定位在随后的第四、第五句。 The current collective doctrine 认为重要的是 efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value...., 而认为justice, fairness..。.不重要,故扭曲了价值观。

40. 答案是C moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper. 段落推断题 定位在最后一段前两句。世界新闻杂志的目的不是提升读者的理解能力。。。。而是为了发行量和影响力而毁了人们的生活。从ruined the lives 的表达能看出作者希望杂志所做的是提高其道德意识,与C选项对应。

Part B

Directions:

In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

How does your reading proceed? Clearly, you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them, drawing on your implicit knowledge of English grammar. (41)________________. You begin to infer a context for the text, for instance, by making decisions about what kind of speech event is evolved. Who is making the utterance, to whom, when and where?

The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of comprehension but they show comprehension to consist not just of passive assimilation but of active engagement in inference and problem-solving. You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific evidence and clues. (42) ________________

Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or “true” meaning that can be read off and checked for accuracy, or some timeless relationship of the text to the world. (43) _____________

Such background material inevitably reflects who we are. (44) _____________. This does not, however, make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different historical periods, places and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same words on the page---including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns--- debates about texts can play an important role in social discussion of belief and values。

How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it. (45) _____________. Such dimensions of reading suggest---as others introduced later in the book will also do--that we bring an implicit (often unacknowledged) agenda to any act of reading. It does not then necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced or more worthwhile than another. Ideally, different minds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they make up the reading component of your overall literacy, or relationship to your surrounding textual environment。

[A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfills the requirement of a given course? Reading it simply for pleasure? Skimming it for information? Ways of reading on a train or in bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room。

[B] Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards certain interpretations but at the same time obscure or even close off others。

[C] If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the context. On the assumption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse entities as well as possible links between them。

[D]In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meanings or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had: These might be the ones the author intended。

[E] You make further inferences, for instance, about how the text may be significant to you, or about its validity—inferences that form the basis of a personal response for which the author will inevitably be far less responsible。

[F] In plays, novels and narrative poems, characters speak as constructs created by the author, not necessarily as mouthpieces for the author’s own thoughts。

[G]Rather, we ascribe meanings to texts on the basis of interaction between what we might call textual and contextual material: between kinds of organizations or patterning we perceive in a text’s formal structures (so especially its language structures) and various kinds of background, social knowledge, belief and attitude that we bring to the text。

41 【C】

解析:41段中空,所以要看上句。空前与空后句中的主语是you,因此正确选项在C、D中存在,此其一也;D中出现了reconstruct(重组)逻辑上是再次发生,与位于句首的逻辑发生了叙述上的矛盾。故排除D选择C。另外,C中的words or idioms和meanings 在41空前句重现,因为前句中有identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them。

42 【E】

解析:42 段尾空,所以看上一句话。空前一句中的主语是you,因此正确选项在C、D、E中存在,此其一也;其二,该句中主句谓语动词是infer, 与E中的宾语inferences构成逻辑对应关系。故排除C和D选择E。另外,42空前两句提到了阅读时我们会active engagement in inference and problem-solving, 并针对作者文中的specific evidence and clues 进行信息的推测。E选项中further 一词表明延续此话题,用for instance 具体举例说明我们对文章信息作怎么样的推测。

43【G】

解析:43段尾空,应重点看本段上一句。同时下段开头出现了代词such background,而G中最后一句中的background与之形成逻辑对应关系。故选择G。另外,G中Rather表示转折,与43空前句开头的not 构成“not? rather?”的“不是??而是??”结构

44【B】

解析:44段中空,看上下句。此段空前句中有关键词background,空后句中有关键词interpretation; background逻辑上对应G中最后一句中的background,而interpretation 逻辑对应B中最后一句中的interpretations. 故选择B。另外,B中Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender, ethnicity, age and social class 是44空前who we are的具体阐述。

45【A】

解析:45段中空,看上下句。最后一段首句主语是we, 所有选项中只有A和G的主语是we;但是G中首词是转折词Rather,与首句逻辑矛盾,故排除G选择A。另外,A中具体描述了许多不同的阅读目的和方式,此为对45空前句How we read a given text 和our particular interest in reading it 的具体阐述。A中的信息是45空后句such dimensions of reading 的指代对象。

Part C Translation

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration -one of the great folk wanderings of history-swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent。

47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world. 48) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American。

49)The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on meager rations. Many of the ships were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes tempests blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought interminable delay。

To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief. Said one chronicler, "The air at twelve leagues' distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden." The colonists' first glimpse of the new land was a vista of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores。

46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent。

【参考译文】在多种强大的动机驱动下,这次移民在一片荒野上建起了一个国家,其本身塑造了一个未知大陆的性格和命运。

47) The United States is the product of two principal forces——the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits。

【参考译文】美国产生于两个主要力量:思想习俗、民族特色各异的欧洲移民,以及修改这些特征的新国家所产生的影响。

48 But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes。

【参考译文】但是,美国拥有独特的地理条件,不同民族之间产生了相互的作用,因此,在一片原始新大陆上,维护旧大陆方式产生了纯粹的困难,这一切引发了重大的变化。

49 The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North America。

【参考译文】在15-16世纪北美探索的一百多年之后,运往如今的美国这片新领土的第一船移民横渡了大西洋。

50 The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia。

【参考译文】拥有丰富多样树种的原始森林是一个真正的宝库,它从缅因州一直延伸到乔治亚州。

Section III Writing

Part A

Directions:

You are going to hold a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members。

You should state reasons for your recommendation。

You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead. Do not write the address 。(10 points)

Dear friends,

I am writing to tell you about a fantastic book I have just read, as we always share the same taste of books。

The book is called Journey to the West, which tells us a story that four monks conquered multiple handicaps to achieve their final destination. Besides the touching and thrilling plot, the book also features humorous languages, thanks to the talented author。

So I recommend it to all of you as one of the favorite books that I have ever read. I am sure you will love it as much as I do. I am looking forward to discussing more with you after you read it。

Yours sincerely,

· Li Ming

Part B

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture.in your essay, you should

1. describe the pictures briefly,

2. interpret its intended meaning, and

3. give your comments。

You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points)

A group of friends, boys or girls, are having a dinner party while each one of them is checking messages in their mobile phones without saying a word to one another, leaving the dishes untouched. We are informed that this is a gathering in the era of mobile phone。

The above picture unveils a common social phenomenon and the symbolic meaning of the photo is the effect of the mobile phone on people’s way of life. Undoubtedly, the phone provides us with considerable convenience, making many things possible which are beyond our dreams. As a communication tool, the phone makes us closer than ever before by providing immediate communication. Meanwhile, there are negative effects on our personal life. As is shown in the picture, people are imprisoned in their own world! They choose contacting online rather than communicating face to face。

Accordingly, enjoying the convenience provided by the phones, we should bear in mind that human beings are social beings who need real interpersonal interactions! Joint efforts are needed to ensure people to have face-to-face communication! I believe a harmonious relationship between friends is awaiting us if we set aside our mobile phones and enjoy the untouched meal!

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