(1)通过阅读能力的培养，促进写作技能的提高。 (2)重视写作过程中上下文的连贯性。、 (3)多读、多背好文章、范文。
(1)选材要切题，选最能说明主题的材料，做到有话可说，要充分利用自己的生活经验。 (2)一定要看清题目要求，要把题目要求全部渗透到文章中去。 (3)要用自己熟悉的句型结构和词语。
在阅卷的过程中，很多老师愕然于学生表达的苍白。比如在表达观点的语句中，诸如“I think A is good, but B is not good.”的句子，略作改变我们可以把它调整成：A is just to the point in claiming that?,
或者A plays a crucial role in the forming of a good (character, society) 等等，当然我们可以非常简单的把问题归结到学生不会变通，思维具有局限性，不过真正原因恐怕是缺乏必要的知识输入。 应对策略：
1． 在词汇讲解时注意对单词实际意义的深层剖析，注意除简单中文解释外单词的真正运用。 如 fail
如 When we fail to observe the process as a whole, it’s almost impossible to form a proper concept of the phenomenon. 这样的比较书面化的句子。 2利用好在高中习题中广为应用的词汇辨析，丰富学生的词库：
如big 这样简单的单词我们可以想到很多替换词，例如：large ,huge, vast ,great ,immense ,enormous ,giant ,titanic ,massive, 当然MAX也都可以解释“大”而用到不同的语境之中。
3． 作文相关词汇的学习和收集：这可以从两个方面加以总结和学习。 其一是常见主题词汇的联系：
pollution, atmosphere, green peace, recycle,等等词汇。
其二是有些与写作相关的连接词和表达词的积累： 如排序用词：first,second, last but not least; 连接用词what is more, further more, on the other hand;
性的词汇?? plays the primary role in ??, 表达显示
the simple picture reveals a profound truth that??
举个简单的例子：20xx年上海市高考英语关于礼物的作文，某同学想要表达：赠送礼物的目的主要是为了表达对朋友的关心，同是这件礼物也是显示两人多年友谊的象征。假如我们需要使用长句 I present this gift as a symbol of our eternal friendship, thus showing my sincere concern for your situation. 那么对于句式的使用，分词的判断都和翻译的功力有关。
1.感 谢 信
2） Commonly Used Sentences on Letters of Thanks 感谢信常用句型 1) Thank you very much for?
2) Many thanks for your?
3) Please accept my sincere appreciation for××× 4) I am truly grateful to you for×××
5) It was good (thoughtful) of you ×××承蒙好意（关心） ××× 6) You were so kind to send×××
7) Thank you again for your wonderful hospitality(盛情款待) and I am looking forward to seeing you soon.
8）I hope I can reciprocate (回报)your kindness when you come to ×××
9) I cannot tell you how much your letter delighted (愉快) (relieved, amused, enchanted 轻松) me.
10 Please accept my sincere appreciation for?请接受我对??衷心感谢。 11) I sincerely appreciate?
12) I am very sincerely grateful to you for?
1) Thanks for Favor谢恩惠
Dear Mrs. Green,
My daughter has written to tell that you have been very kind to her during her stay in New York.
My husband and I deeply appreciate your courtesy（对此深感谢意）, and we do hope you’ll come to stay together with us for a few days when you are in Beijing. Thank you for your kindness to Lin Fang. Sincerely yours, Li Lan
2) Thanks for Help 谢帮助 Dear Alice,
I wish there were a better word than “thanks” to express my appreciation of your help in making the celebration of our School Founders’Day(校庆庆祝会) a success.
Thanks for giving me the thrill of bringing your wonderful work to the attention of
the trustees at our celebration.（在庆祝会上，您对校董事们的招待工作做得很出色，使我感动。谢谢。）
All my best wishes. Sincerely Salley
4) Thanks for seeing off 谢送行
Many thanks for your coming to see me off at the airport. The warmth of friendship has accompanied me through the whole flight, and made my journey pleasant and comfortable.
I arrived safely at Hong Kong this afternoon, and shall write you again later. Sincerely yours, Jack
5) Thanks for Gifts谢礼物 Dear Mr. Martin:
I want to thank you for the beautiful roses you sent to my mother. She was very happy and pleased when she saw they were from you.
I’m glad to say she is recovering, and I hope she will soon be able to leave the hospital.
We both send you our warmest thanks for the flowers and your very kind wishes. Sincerely, John Granby
6） Thanks for Suggestions from Customers 谢建议 Dear Mr. Kane:
Thanks for your helpful letter in which you suggested we should use ceramic inserts (陶瓷刀片) instead of solid carbide inserts (硬质合金刀片)in assembling our KPII lathe(车床).
After many careful tests we consider your suggestion to be most constructive. We agree with you that ceramic inserts are wear resisting（耐磨） and heat resisting（耐高温）. Our technicians and engineers are working now on a modification（着手改进） of our present lathe. As a token of our appreciation for this suggestion(为了表示我们对这个建议的感谢), we will send you a new lathe with ceramic inserts in mid-July. Thanks again for your very practical suggestion. Sincerely yours Zhang Ming
结尾段：对提出的建议进行总结，要注意有礼貌使读者容易接受。 写作这类题目时，考生要注意不要跑题，因为这类题很有可能写成议论文，如“我认为一??二??，所以要如何如何”。考生应该时刻记得书信的交际功能，要考虑到收信人的感受。在给对方提建议时应该时时说到I和You，要让人时刻感受到这是一种交流。 2.必背模版句型
表对对方的情况表示理解，并乐意帮忙： ? It is a pity that?
? I’m glad to receive your letter asking for my advice on how to ? ? I’m very glad to ? and give you some suggestions on how to? ? It is my pleasure to do?
? I’m willing to give a hand to you. 提建议的句式 ? You can do?
? It is useful / helpful / important / necessary?for you to do? ? In my opinion, it would be better if you do? ? It should be a good idea for you to do? ? It will certainly help a lot to do sth ? It also helps to do sth
? It does harm to sb / sth = It is harmful to?
? ?benefits ? = ? be beneficial to ?= ?do good to? 表意见并列的连词
? Firstly, Above all, First of all, ? Besides,? ? In addition,? ? Moreover,? ? In general,? ? Personally, ? In my opinion,? 注意问题：
表达语气应委婉客气，切勿太严厉；减少使用You should do?
假定你是李华，你的英国朋友Peter来信向你咨询如何才能学好中文。请你根据下列要点写回信。 要点：1，表示你很乐意他能向你求助。 2，参加中文学习班。
3，看中文书刊和电视。 4，学唱中文歌曲。 5，交中国朋友。
6，以后用中文写信给你。 Dear Peter,
I’m glad to receive your letter asking for my advice on how to learn Chinese well. Here are a few suggestions. First, it is important to take a Chinese course, as you’ll be able to learn from the teacher and practice with your fellow students. Then, it also helps to watch TV and read books, newspapers and magazines in Chinese and learn and sing Chinese songs whenever possible.
Besides, it should be a good idea to make more Chinese friends, who will tell you a lot about China as well as help you learn Chinese. Try and write me in Chinese next time. Best wishes！
3.祝 贺 信
2. Commonly used Sentences常用句型
1. With very best wishes for a happy New year! 2. May you come into a good fortune!
3. Wishing you peace, joy and happiness through Christmas and the coming year.
4. Best wishes for a happy birthday and a year of good luck, good health and happiness. 6. Best wishes and hope you will have nothing but joy and happiness in your life together. 7. Congratulations on your success in the national college entrance examination. 8. Allow me to offer my heartiest congratulations on your new job. 9. I am looking forward to your further promotion.
10. How happy you must be to have a beautiful new baby girl.
11. I am sending along some flowers and fruit with my love and my sincere wish for your speedy recovery.
Congratulations on Birthday
Congratulations! From now on, you will be a man. You have reached your 18th birthday! I made this small gift by myself. Please accept it, not for its own value, but for the sake of the thoughts it represents.
I feel very sorry that I can’t attend your birthday party. Please believe I am praying for you.
May you live a long and joyful life, a life full of all the blessings that this would can bestow.
Yours Sincerely, Dunkin
Your wedding card brings to me the happy news of your marriage. I congratulate you and trust that your marriage will be a source of blessing and happiness to you both. Please accept this little present with my congratulations upon your happy wedding. Yours Sincerely, Newby
Congratulations on Passing University Examination
Dear Li Ping,
We are very happy to learn that you have successfully passed the college entrance examination this year and have been admitted into Hunan University with honor. Allow us to offer our most sincere congratulations on this happy occasion.
Wish you greater achievement in your college education. yours Sincerely Wang Liang
4.邀 请 信
（1）邀请信一定要将邀请的时间（年、月、日、钟点）、地点、场合写清楚，不能让收信人有任何的疑虑。例如 “ I’d like you and Tom to come to dinner next Monday” 这句话中指的是哪个星期并不明确，所以要加上具体日期，“I’d like you and Tom to come to dinner next Monday, May the fifth at 6 o’clock. P.m., at the Locus Hotel”。
2.) Commonly Used Sentences
1) I’d like you to come to our dinner this evening. 2) Request the pleasure of ? 恭请?
3) The favor of a reply is requested.敬赐复函。
4) May I have the honor of your company at dinner? 敬备菲酌，恭请光临。 5) Thank you for inviting us to dinner.
6) We are delighted to accept your invitation.
7) I wish I could be there, but I expect to be away on vacation at that time. 8) Please reply to Thirty-five Park Avenue.
9) We’ll be awaiting your arrival on the twelfth.
10) I hope you are not too busy to come期望你在百忙中光临。
11) I’m looking forward to seeing you.
12) We thought it would be pleasant to have some of our friends to celebrate it. 13) The reception will be held in ?, on?招待会定于??在??举行。 14) We sincerely hope you can attend.
15) We have decided to have a party in honor of the occasion.为此我们决定举行一次晚会。 16) Please let me know as soon as possible if you can come and tell me when you will be able to do so.如能来的话，早日告我，何时为宜。
17) Please confirm your participation at your earliest convenience. 是否参加，请早日告之。
1.)Invitation to a Formal Dinner（宴会） Dear Mrs. Benton,
John and I would be very happy if you and Mr. Benton could come to dinner with us on Monday, May the second at six o’clock. We do hope you can Join us. Sincerely yours Ellen Smith
2.) Invitation to an Anniversary Celebration of the founding of a School(校庆)
Dear prof. Smith,
On Monday, September the tenth all the faculty members of Hu Nan University will celebrate the Seventieth Anniversary of the School Founding.
We have decided to have a party in honor of the occasion. The place is Teachers’ Reception Hall(教师会客厅), and the time is Friday evening, September the tenth, at six o’clock. Come and bring your wife or other guest. We look forward to seeing you.
In order to make proper reservations, will you send your acceptance to the attention of Professor Chen no later than a week before that day.(为了便于安排，务请您与宴会举行一周以前将您的接受邀请的回执寄到陈教授处。)
Cordially,（您真诚的) Wang Hua
3.) Invitation to Giving Lectures(邀请来校讲学) 1) A letter of invitation Dear Prof. Green,
I was told by our mutual friend Mr. Wilson that you would visit China next month this year. May I take the opportunity to invite you to come to our college to give the students of our English Department some lectures on “Modern American Literature”?
Please let me know as soon as possible if you can come and tell me when you will be able to do so.
With warm personal regards, I am,(我个人谨向您致以热烈的问候。) Your sincerely, Yan Hai
5.申 请 信
1. Introduction (概述)
申请信的类型：求职信（毕业求职，简历）、申请就业、申请调动工作、辞职、报考国外大学等信函。注意求职信中，称呼要得当。申请信要简单明了，常分开场白（opener）、正文（body）和结尾（close）三个部分。开场白不用客套话，应开门见山，说明你的写信原因、兴趣等。注意如系求职信，正文应强调自己的学历和工作经历。如系申请其他事项，应着重说明理由。如系求职信，结尾段应表示希望参加面试；如系申请其他事项，结尾应提请关注和早日办理。结尾敬语之前常加上“I would appreciate your early reply.”（如蒙早日赐复，则不胜感激）之类的客套话。
1.求职信（Applications for Job）
2.申请调动工作（ Applications for Transferring Post ）
3.申请辞职（Application for Resignation）
4.申请奖学金和助学金（Applications for Scholarships or Assistantship ） 5.申请护照和签证（Applications for Passport and Visa ） 3. 例文
毕业求职样例 (Application for a Position of Stockbroker)
Your advertisement for stockbrokers in “China daily” of May 2 has interested me very much. I feel I can fill one of the vacancies you have.
I’m twenty-two years of age and female. I will graduate in July. My specialty at college is none other than securities business. I have gained some practical experience in brokerage in recent two years acting as a part-time broker for Beijing Commodities Futures Exchange. At College, I have participated in a lot of activities both at the collegiate level and
the department level. I have attended a large number of symposia and conferences on the business of stockbroking. I am young and energetic and maintain good interpersonal relations. I mention these because I know my line of work is a demanding one and I am willing to show that I can face up to any challenge placed before me.
Should this application meet with your favorable consideration, I will do my utmost to satisfy the confidence you may response in me. I am looking forward to hearing from you as soon as possible.
I wish to apply for the position of Business Secretary advertised in today’s Modern Business (newspaper)
I should esteem it a great favor if you could give me an opportunity to try to serve you in the position.
I learnt that the position of cashier (secretary,typist) in your firm is about to become vacant, and I should like to make an application for it.
申请辞职Application for Resignation Dear Mr. Knittle,
It is with mixed feelings that I submit my resignation as Regional Sales Manager for our company. Because of the confidence you have shown in my ability to take on new assignments, my eleven years with the company have been a time of growth and challenge.
But as you know, for some time I have wanted to gain additional experience in other areas of marketing. I now have that opportunity and will be leaving the company on March 15th.
I appreciate the support and encouragement you have given me during the years we have worked together.
申请奖学金和助学金Applications for Scholarships or Assistantship Dear sirs:
I am pleased to learn of my admission to two-year program of studies leading to degree of M.S. in pharmacy. Indeed, I have dreamed of this opportunity since completing my undergraduate study.
In order to reduce the financial responsibility of my parents, I earnestly hope to obtain some kind of financial aid in the form of teaching or research assistantship.
Would you kindly consider this request and advise me as to the possibilities? Should further information be required, please let me know at your earliest convenience. I look
forward to hearing good news from you.
Notice is hereby given that??特此通知
Readers are requested to note that??请读者们注意??
Under the auspices of Education Bureau,??由教育局主办（主持、主讲）??
A report will be given on English literature by Prof. Yang from Hong Kong University. 来华访问的香港杨教授将作英国文学报告。
??Group takes pleasure in announcing an English Evening to be held in (place ) on the (day),the (date) at (time) a.m. / p.m.
??组很高兴地通知将于X年X月X日星期X上午/下午X时在XX地点举行英语晚会。 Please be there. 请准时出席。
??be expected to attend ??欢迎光临 Be sure to attend on time.一定准时出席。 Please be present on time.请准时出席。
The meeting will be put off until next month.会议将延期到下周
There will be an English lecture on the differences between American English and British English by Mr. Johnson, an American professor from Beijing University. It will be given in the second
reading-room on Saturday evening from 7:00-9:00, Feb.15.2001.Those who are interested in it are warmly welcome. And you may also invite your friends and the comrades of other schools to attend it.
Be sure not to be late. After the lecture, please write a diary about it in English. Feb.10.2001
THE STUDENTS UNION
April 4th, Sunday Fine
I was on the way to see a film at 9 in the morning when I met with a young American couple.
They were going to Huari Market. But they didn’t know how to get there. They seemed to be very
worried. So I went over and told then the way. They were so thankful to me that they said again
and again, “Thank you!”
Though I was late for the film, I didn’t mind, for I can talk with the foreign guests in English.
假定你名叫张伟，是外籍教师David Johnson的学生。现在是6月8日下午四点，你到他家通知他一件事，并向他借Longman辞典。他不在家，因此，你给他留下一个便条。便条内容如下：⑴明天的会议将推迟到本星期五下午两点半，因为明天你们要去参观一个英国工业展览会。学校的大轿车将在上午八点从校门口出发。⑵你要向他借Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English使用几个星期，因为你在用英语写你得学期论文，你经常要查这本词典。如果Johnson教授愿意借给你那本词典，你请求他明天去参观展览会是把那本词典带给你。 词数：100左右。 4:00 p.m. June 8 Dear Prof. Johnson,
Tomorrow’s meeting will be put off to Friday(2:30 p.m.).Instead, we shall go and visit the
Industrial Exhibition of U.K. Tomorrow the school bus will start off from the school gate at 8:00
a.m.May I borrow your Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English for a few weeks? I am writing my term paper in English now, and need to refer to the dictionary from time to time. If you can spare it now, please bring it to me tomorrow when you visit the exhibition. Many thanks. Yours ever, Zhang Wei
2. 2010陕西 假定你是李华。你们学校和一所美国中学签署了教师交流协议。在过去的一年里，你们的英文老师是来自这所中学的Sue Wood。不久前她返回美国任教。请你根据写作要点和要求给Sue写封电子邮件。 写作要点： 1.对她表达感谢之意;
1.短文须写在答题卡的指定区域。 2.短文词数不少于100（不含已写好的部分）。 3.内容充实，结构完整，语意连贯。 4.书写须清晰、工整。
1. 表示歉意； 2. 解释原因； 3. 另约时间。 注意：1. 词数120~150； 2. 可适当增加细节。
假设你是李华，于20xx年6月3日搭乘国外某航空公司航班（flight number BA793）回国后，发现遗失了一个行李箱（suitcase）。现请用英文给该航空公司写一封信，请他们帮你寻找。
信件要点包括： ● 陈述写信原因 ● 简要描述该行李 ● 说明其重要性 ● 期待回复并表示感谢 注意：
2. 信件格式已为你给出。 3. 请在答题卡上作答。
● 对此活动的认识（如对本人、学生级社会的益处等） ●个人优势（如性格、独立生活能力、语言能力等） ●你的计划（如怎样进行辅导等） 注意：
2.可适当加入细节，以使内容充实、行文连贯； 3. 信的开头和结尾已给出，不计入词数。 参考词汇：
晨曦希望小学 Chenxi Hope School
假设你是红星中学高二(1)班的学生李华，利用上周末的时间帮助祖父母安排了去北戴河的旅行。请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序，写一篇英文周记，叙述你从准备到送行的全过程。 注意：1．周记的开头已为你写好。 2．词数不少于60。
Last weekend, I helped my grandparents prepare their trip to Beidaihe.
4. 你的联系方式(Email：lihua@1236 com；Phone：12345678)。 注意：1词数l00左右； 2可以适当增加细节，以使行文连贯； 3结束语已为你写好。
8.2011．天津 假设你是晨光中学学生会主席李华。你校将于6月26日接待来自于美国某中学的学生访问团。你受学校委托，负责安排在津的一日活动。请根据以下提示，用英语给该团的领队Smith 先生写一封电子邮件，介绍活动计划并简要说明理由，最后征求对方意见。
上午与我校学生座谈（话题如校园生活、文化差异等）； 中午与我校学生共同进餐（午餐包括饺子、面条等）； 下午与我校学生游览海河。
注意：1. 次数不少于100；2. 可是当加入细节，以使内容充实、行文连贯；
3. 信的开头和结尾已给出，不计入总次数。 参考词汇：海河 the Haihe River
9.2011上海 Guided Writing
Directions: Write an English composition in 120—150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.
假如你是启明中学（Ming Qi Middle School）的李明，想申请一个扶贫项目，帮助贫困地区的儿童。
），内容如下： ● 表示有意参加
Application Form （申请表）
假设你是高中生李越，有感于校园中存在的随意涂写（to scribble) 和乱丢垃圾（to litter)的行为，请用英语给校长写一封100-120个词的信。信中应包括以下内容：
1. 说明写信目的；2. 对这些行为进行批评； 3. 提出建议。 注意：信的抬头、落款及信得第一句已给出（不计词数）。
I’m the mother of a fourteen-year-old．I have a rule for my daughter：be among the top 5 students or get punished in one way or another．She has been doing very well in school，but some friends of mine keep telling me that I put too much pressure on her．Am l wrong?
1．表明自己的看法； 2．陈述自己的理由(可举例说明)；3．提出至少两条建议。 要求：
1．短文须写在答题卡的指定区域。 2．短文词数不少于l00(不含已写好的部分)。 3．内容充实,结构完整,语意连贯。 4．书写须清晰、工整。
感谢信（thank-you letters）是在收到别人赠送的礼物、得到别人的某种帮助或受到别人的款待后写的信。这种信要写得及时；否则，收信人对你的谢意就会大打折扣。感谢信不要太长，但要写得真挚。通常要提到对方送的礼物怎么好，帮助有多大，款待得多么周到等。 感谢信常用的语句有：
①Many thanks for your kind and warm help. ②I am greatly indebted to you for your help. ③ Thank you for your generous hospitality.
④ It was really exciting to get your New Year's card!
⑤ I'm sincerely grateful for all your help in finding me a place. ⑥Your note of congratulations is deeply appreciated.
⑦Thank you for doing so much to make my trip interesting. ⑧Thank you for your kindness to have done me a favour.
1. 假定你是来自英国的旅游者约翰.史密斯， 现用英语给十中的校长写一封感谢信， 内容如下： ③吴新的地址是太平街115号，乘113路公共汽车在太平街下车。电话号码：541884。告李伟如不1．昨天你在公园游览时丢失钱包，里面有很多钱，还有护照和机票。
2．当晚有一个男孩找到你的房间，送还拾到的钱包。你想给钱他作为感谢，被他拒绝。 3．你从宾馆经理那里获悉，他是十中的学生，名叫李华。 注：字数：100 左右。
③认为刘冬的母亲是一位非常出色的厨师，美味可口的饭菜使你体重增加了近10磅。 ④再次感谢，并希望保持联系。欢迎他有机会来你校游玩。 要求字数120字以上；
收信人地址：16 South Street ,Epping T33 B54 UK 学校情况：教师人数：119人 学生人数：1700人（24个班） 建校时间：1892年
不要逐条翻译所给信息，要写成内容连贯的短文 按英文信格式写 词数 120个左右
单词 校园campus 体育馆 gymnasium
5. 今天，你收到了好友小玲的一封信，信中她说过年想买一部手机，为此她征求你的意见，根据以下提示，请你写一封建议她不要买手机的回信。 提示。
1． 发短信会占据太多的学习时间。 2． 校内不许用手机，因为会打扰别人， 3． 还经常会收到一些欺骗性的不良短信 4． 因手机费用而增加父母的负担。
6. 假设你是李华，你校高三年级正在组织北京大学(Beijing University)自主招生活动，请你根据以下要点提示给你在美国的表兄Andy写一封信。 要点：
3. 文中不得出现与本人及学校有关的任何真实信息。 参考词汇：选拔考试the Selective Test
自主招生考试 the Admissions Examinations
7. 假如你是宁德市某中学的一名学生，为了结合你校开展的“感恩教育”活动，英语教研组决定举办一场以“感恩”为主题的英语短文比赛。请你根据以下提示用英语写一篇短文。短文要点如下： 1. 感恩对象: 如父母、老师。
2.感恩理由: 如父母养育之恩、老师培养之恩?? 3.感恩方式: ??
1. 可根据内容要点适当发挥，但不要逐条翻译； 2. 文中不得使用真实的校名和人名； 3. 词数：120左右；
Always Be Grateful
As is known to all, it is one of the Chinese traditional virtues to be grateful to_____________
2.词数不超过120，开头部分不计入总词数。 Today is September 1st. It is a sunny day.
1. Because the weather was good, our journey was comfortable. 2. We all think he is a great man.
3. Suddenly I thought out a good idea. 4. The students there needn’t pay for their books. 5. As a result the plan was a failure.
6. When she heard he had died, she went pale with sorrow. 7. She went to Austria in order to study music. 8. When he spoke, he felt more and more excited.
9.In our school, there are twenty-six classrooms. 10. You can find my house easily. 二、怎样使用恰当的连接词
提示2：巧妙使用意思有联系的词或短语，如First, Second, Third, Soon, What’s more, As a result等。
提示3：适当使用过渡性语句，如The reasons are as follows./Every coin has two sides./On the other hand,/On the contrary,
Besides, it would be better for her to have a pet dog as I have kept one at home f
or some time. ( 2007全国I)
First, she can make some pocket money to meet pet daily needs and thus develop a sense of independence. Second, she can learn how to deal with various problems in the w
orkplace. Third, she can build up new friendships and improve bet social skills. (2007陕西)
In my opinion, learning English is a step-by-step process. (2007浙江) 连接词、句型的选择 1、递进关系
（肯定）Besides / What’s more / Also /In addition/Furthermore
（否定）What’s worse / Even worse / Worse still /To make matters worse 2、时间
一?就?：The moment / On doing / as soon as /immediately / directly 不 久：It was not long before ? / After a while / Soon 然 后：After that / Then / So / Next 同 时： At the same time / Meanwhile
3、转 折：however , / but / on the contrary / On the other hand / yet / although
4、顺 序：First / Second / Third / Last / Next/Then
5、条 件：If / As long as / So long as /on condition that / unless
6、强 调：It was ?that / who ? / So she did . /I do hope ? / She did help me. /It really worked./ besides/ furthermore/moreover/what’s more/ certainly/ actually/ in fact
不得不做某事：have to do sth./have no choice but to do sth./have nothing to do but do sth.
有必要做某事：There is no need (for sb.) to do sth./It is necessary (for sb.)to do ?
最好 做某 事：You’d better do sth. / It’s better to do sth.
做某事没困难：have no difficulty in doing sth. / have no trouble in doing sth. 感 谢 某 人：thank sb. / be thankful to sb./ express one’s thanks to sb. /be grateful to sb. / Thanks to ?
求 助 某 人：turn to sb. for help / ask sb. for help / with the help of / with one’s help
惊 奇：To one’s surprise / In surprise / Surprisingly / only +不定式（表意外结果）
结 果：As a result / Therefore / Thus / So
总 结：In a word / In short / Above all / After all/ generally speaking/ to sum up/ in all/altogether / as is known to all
表 达 观 点：In my opinion / I think / I believe / I’m sure / I guess 原因如下（很多）：he reasons are as follows. /here are many reasons for it. 浪费金钱（时间）：It’s a waste of money / time ?
1、 Yao Ming was walking in the street he heard someone cry for help. 2、 He advised that I hire a car I could travel around in the west .
3、 It was not long the police came.
4、 he heard the cry for help, he jumped into the water to save the girl. 5、 o you agree with my arrangement ? ,do write to me soon. 6、 We can go downtown and do some shopping. , we can pay a visit to some places of interest.
7、I shared the cost of the gas with my friends . , I saved $80.
8、Eating sugar is bad for our teeth. , it may make us fat.
Task: Writing Practice
2、部分家长认为女孩上学无用，不愿让她们上学。 3、 部分儿童对功课不感兴趣，不愿上学。 看法：
1、不要逐字逐句翻译。 2、语句要连贯通顺。 3、字数100个左右。
Now in the country areas, there are many children out of school. Most families are poor and can’t afford their education. They have to stay at home and make money. Some parents think daughters needn’t go to school. They don’t let them go to school. Some children are not interested in their studies and wouldn’t like to go to school. All the children including girls should be educated. The whole society should pay attention to it. They’ll play an important part in the future of our country.
[优点] 1、词能达意； 2、语句表达基本正确。 [缺点] 语句不够连贯 [药方] 1、使用常见句型；
Now in the country areas, there are many children out of school.▁▁▁▁▁▁▁▁。▁▁▁，most families are too poor to send their children to school . ▁▁▁▁,they have no choice but to stay at home and make money. ▁▁▁,some parents think there is no need for their daughters to go to school. ▁▁▁▁,they don’t let them go to school. ▁▁▁,some children are not interested in their studies. ▁▁▁▁▁▁,some wouldn’t like to go to school.
▁▁▁▁▁▁,all the children including girls should be educated . ▁▁▁▁▁▁,th
e whole society should pay attention to it ▁▁▁they’ll play an important part in the future of our country one day. 三、怎样使用较丰富的句式
方法一. 使用非谓语动词使句子简洁高档 Rewrite the sentences
1. They arrived at the school. They felt the happy atmosphere. 2. I will be given another chance. I will succeed. 3. He wants to improve his English. He studies hard.
4 When he arrives, please give me an e-mail.（使用V-ing形式）. Complete the sentences with non-predicate (非谓语动词) 5. 听到这个消息, 他们变的很激动。 _________the news, they got excited.
6. 尽管被告知许多遍, 他仍然重复这个错。
__________________many times, he still repeated the mistake. 7. 除非被邀请发言, 你应该在会议上保持沉默。
Unless ________to speak, you should keep silent at the meeting. Translate the following sentences by using non-predicate (非谓语动词) 8. 面对困难时，他从不放弃。 9. 引入市场后，该产品大获成功。 10. 做完作业后，他回家了。
方法二. 巧用倒装结构增强句子的表现力 Complete the sentences
1. He didn’t realize his foolishness until he returned home. Not until . 2. We can save the earth by changing the way we live. Only . 3. He is clever but he does not work hard. as / though .
4. The clock tower stands on the other side of the street. On the other side of the street . Translate the sentences by using Inverted Sentences(倒装句) 5. 他从不说关于他家庭的事。
6. 只有我们每个人都意识到水的重要性, 我们才能生活得更好。
7. 只有用这种方式, 我们才能有足够的精力好好学习。
8. Describe the character（济公） by using Inverted Sentence(倒装句) 9. 他是个孩子，却知道很多。
10. 墙上有个通知，上面写着“请节约用水”。 方法三. 尝试多样化表达方式
1、感叹句 e.g. 1) How happy I was when I received your letter. 2） What a kind boy he is! 3）How disappointed he was !
2、强调句 e.g. It was this young boy that helped the old granny. 3、倒装句 e.g. 1) Only in this way can you solve this problem. 2) There comes the police car.
3) Hardly had they got to the station when they met the young man. 4、省略句 e.g. They read while walking or riding on a bus.
5、with短语 e.g. I saw a young lady walking slowly in the street with a handbag in her hand.
6、定语从句 e.g. In my opinion, cyber cafes should be a place where we can find much useful information.
7、各种名词性从句 e.g. That’s what I should do.
8、各种状语从句 e.g. Use ifferent ways to describe the picture （连战的破冰之旅）一?就受到欢迎
a. As soon as Lien Chan and his wife arrived at the airport, they were warmly welcomed.
b. On arriving at the airport, Lien Chan and his wife?
c. Lien Chan and his wife were warmly welcomed directly/ the moment they arrived a
t the airport.
d. No sooner had Lien Chan and his wife arrived at the airport than they were ? e. Hardly had Lien Chan and his wife arrived at the airport when they were ? ??
1. 覆盖所有的语言要点。 内容要点可用不同方式表达。对紧扣主题的适当发挥不予扣分。 2. 应用词汇和语法结构的数量和准确性。值得注意的是语法结构或词汇方面虽有些许错误, 但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致; 具备较强的语言运用能力。 3.有效地使用了语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑。 Ⅱ. 常见的不足 1 汉语式英语 2无过渡语
3 句式单一,平铺直叙 Ⅲ. 如何增强书面表达效果 使用较高级的词汇? 使用恰当的连接词? 使用较丰富的句式?
慰 问 及 吊 唁 信
2. Commonly Used Sentences on Letters of Consolation and Condolence吊慰信函常用句型 1）表示“惊悉??”： I’m very sorry to hear of? I’m very sorry to hear that? I regret to hear?
I’m much grieved to hear?
I’m deeply distressed to hear?
I’m shocked to hear?
It was a profound shock to hear the tragic news. It is with great concern that I hear of?
It is with great anxiety that I hear of?
I cannot tell you how sad I felt when I was told?
If you want me to do anything, do not hesitate to let me know.
If I can be of any assistance to you, I hope you will let me know at once. I would be delighted to serve you to best of my ability. I shall be delighted if I can do anything for You. 3) 表示“我深感哀悼?”或“深感同情?”
We want to express deep sympathy and solicitude(慰问) for the sudden death of your general manager.
We wish to express my deep sorrow on the news of the death of your president and to convey our condolences（哀悼）to you on this sad occasion.
Please accept my deepest sympathy and convey my sympathy also to his family.
May I add my sincere sympathy(诚挚的哀悼) to that of the many who know and admired her. Your sorrow is shared by everyone who knew and loved her.
I hope that by the time this letter reaches you, you’ll be feeling much better. Wish you speedy recovery.
We hope you will have a speedy quick recovery.
I know you will be strong and brave for the sake of the children May you rest in place, my old friend!
3. Specimen 样例
1) Consoling Patient 慰问病人 Dear Alice,
We are all so sorry to hear that you are in hospital and you will have to undergo an operation. We know you have been feeling ill for quite a long time but persevere with(坚
持)hard work for the development of the company. Everybody hopes that your stay in hospital will put things right and looks forward to seeing you in the office early. Best wishes for a very speedy return to health.
John 2) Consoling a Friend Injured in a Car Accident
We are greatly shocked to learn that you were knocked down by a truck while cycling back to the campus last night. How are you feeling today? We do hope that you are doing well after the operation on your injured leg indeed.
We are coming to see you on Friday afternoon and trust that your condition will remarkably improve by then.
With every good wish for your swift recovery!
Sincerely yours Members of Class A
3) Consoling the People Suffered Heavy Casualties by An Earthquake慰问因地震而造成的严重伤亡的人们
Red Cross Society of Xinjiang
Ladies and Gentlemen,
We were shocked to learn that the strong earthquake around the area in Yili, Xinjiang and unfortunately caused heavy casualties and material losses to the inhabitants. Our company express deep sympathy and solicitude (深切的同情和慰问)for the afflicted （受灾的）people and donate the sum of RMB1000 000 Yuan as an expression of our concern for them. Your society is requested to transmit this sum to the people in the affected areas and convey the profound solicitude of the Far East Company (China) and the staff to them.
The Far East Company (China)
4. Consoling a Friend Injured by Divorce
Dear Mr. Jackson,
I am must grieved(惆怅) to hear of your divorce. I know well what you must be feeling and you have my sincere sympathy. Although it is a terrible blow, I am convinced you will bear it like a man. When can I see you?
Yours ever, John Smith
5. Consoling a Friend Losing His Job
I was sorry to hear of your unemployment. I quite understand how you feel now, for I had been through the same experience before.
Believe me, the misfortune is not your own fault, only because of the economic depression. Don’t be discouraged by it. Your present embarrassment is only temporary.
I shall call on you this weekend and let us go out together. Sincerely yours, Jim
6. Consoling a Friend Failed in the Entrance Examination of University Dear Li Lan,
What a surprise to me when the news came that you failed in the entrance examination of Beijing University. You have always worked hard in school. In the final examination, you have distinguished yourself with honor(大考时也名列前茅). Your failure is not your own fault, I am sure.
Those who have real knowledge may fail in the examination if chance is against them(真正博学之士有时也有时失误). I hope you won’t take this to heart and will get ready to try again
7. Expressing Condolences on the Death of a Friend’s Father
We are shocked by the painful news of the passing away of your father. He was a fine old gentleman, well-loved and admired by all who knew him. I quite understand how you feel now, but you are in duty bound to look to your own health(必须善自珍重) and take care of your family.
My family and I send our heartfelt(衷心的) sympathy.
Yours sincerely John
8. Expressing Condolences on the Death of Supervisor and Friend
Thomas’ death has saddened me beyond words(令我悲痛万分）.It is hard for me to accept. I’m sure you know, Bess, the enormous influence your husband had on me personally and
on my career. He was the first person ever to say to me, “Jack, you have a special gift. I’m going to do all I can to see that it is developed to its fullest（使你的天赋充分展露）.” He then proceeded to do just that, and during our eight years together, he never lost faith in me and was, of course, largely responsible for the success I have achieved.
9. Expressing Condolences on the Death of a Business Partner
I was indeed grieved to hear of the passing away of Present Mr. William Wang. I feel a special loss, as he contributed a lot of to our business cooperation. He will long be remembered by all who knew him and who worked with him.
Please let me know when the funeral is to take place, as I wish to attend it and to pay my last deep respect to the deceased（以表达我深切的哀悼之意）.
My staff join me conveying our sincere sympathy to his family.
Yours faithfully David White President
10. Memorial Speech(悼词)
Ladies and Gentlemen,
It is with the deepest grief that we pay great respects to the memory of Comrade Zhang Da-hai, Who died at 3 a.m. Monday, May 6 of a heart attack.
Comrade Zhang Da-hai was born in 1955 in Shanghai. At the age of 15 he left with his uncle for Canada, where he managed to gain a college education, graduating from UBC with the degree of Ph.D of Biochemistry(生物化学) in1985．After he returned to the motherland in 1990, he has been doing research work in biochemistry and teaching in our school. He works actively and teaches earnestly(工作积极，教学认真), winning high praises from his students.
His passing is a great loss not only to his family but also to our school.
Comrade Zhang has forever left us, but his name will endure through the ages（与世长存）, and so will his work!
Rest in place, comrade Zhang Da-hai!
你是张华。你要竞选班长，请写一篇竞选演讲词。演讲中包括： 1． 你认为自己具备什么条件可以胜任班长 2． 你如当选班长会为本班同学做什么
Good afternoon everyone!
My name is Zhanghua. I’m glad to have this opportunity to introduce myself and to tell you why
you should vote for me as class president.
Responsible, sociable, and easy-going in nature, I like class work and enjoy serving others. Meanwhile, I have wide interests. I love singing and playing the guitar; I play basketball and table
tennis. It is true that I have never been a monitor, but I will be more creative without being
influenced by the traditional admin pattern. I am also a good listener and always open to different opinions. I am confident that I can do the job well.
With your vote, here are some of the things I plan to accomplish during my term as president of our class.
Being a student myself, I am fully aware that studies take top priority. S
o first of all, I will create an academic atmosphere so that everyone in our class will make improvement in their studies. For those students who are falling behind, I will find ways to help them so they can catch up.
Secondly, I will serve as a bridge between the teachers and us students. Thus our teachers will be
able to help us in a better and more efficient way.
Finally, I will arrange class meetings and hold parties frequently for us to communica
te, to share
learning experiences and to enhance understandings. We can relax and then get ready to embrace
tough study again.
There’s much more to be done to make a difference to our class. I believe I am the right person for this post. I hope to have your support and vote. Thank you!