SUMMARY写法1(4500字)

来源:m.ttfanwen.com时间:2016.4.18

Summary的写法1

一、概括原文

(一)阅读

1.读懂文章

读文章的时候,要养成良好的阅读习惯,划划写写,英文阅读的时候,用铅笔轻轻划出重点词汇。

认真阅读给定的原文材料。如果一遍不能理解,就多读两遍。阅读次数越多,你对原文的理解就越深刻。

2.拆分文章

按照作者的思路,把文章分段,每个段落用几个词,几个短语概括。尽量简短,精炼。 段落中心句,在段落的开头或末尾。有时也会变态的在当中。

3.概括主旨

写出文章的thesis, 一句话概括文章的主旨。

(二)基本结构和技巧

1.重新拟定标题

给summary起一个标题。用那些能概括文章主题思想的单词、短语或短句子作为标题。也可以采用文中的主题句作为标题。

2.阐述观点

摘要应全部用自己的话完成。不要引用原文的句子。写概述的时候,如果能够明确是他人写作的文章,注意要把作者的名字放在第一句(或者是the author…….)。接着写出要阐述的main ideas(主要观点)和supporting points(对主要观点的支持)。

3.词汇运用

注意概述的coherence(连贯性),运用好transition words(过渡词), like however, furthermore, nonetheless, besides, therefore etc.

4.删除细节

只保留主要观点。

5.选择一至两个有代表性的例子

原文中可能包括5个或更多的例子,你只需从中筛选一至二个例子。

6.把长句变成短句,把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子。

“ He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.”

可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.”

“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.”

可以概括为:”He was very brave in battle.”

“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.”

可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.”

6) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句。请看下面的例子:

“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.”

可以概括为:”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.”

7) 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如:

1

“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.”

可以概括为:”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.”

8) 使用最短的连接词。比如,可以使用but, then, thus, yet, though,不能使用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等较长的连接词。通常,使用分号就能够达成使用连接词的效果。

9) 文章中的第一人称说的话通常在摘要中转换成第三人称,从而把大段的对白简化,比如:

Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful… like eating cardboard or sand… just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.”

可以用第三人称概括为:

Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless.

7.注意问题

(1)避免重复

在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会重复论证说明。但是这在summary中是不能使用的。应该删除那些突出强调的重述句。

(2)不要把自己的观点强行添加给作者

(3)概述长度不要超过原文章的1/4

(4)不要过多照搬原作者的用词,用句

(尽可能用自己的话来写,但不排斥用原文的某些词句)。

(5)最后检查一遍,确保文中没有语病,没有语法错误和拼写错误。

二、论文摘要

摘要的基本结构和内容 因为摘要本质上就是一篇高度浓缩的论文,所以其构成与论文主体的结构是对应的。因此,摘要应包括以下内容梗概:(1)目的:研究工作的前提、目的和任务, 所涉及的主题范围;(2)方法:所用的理论、条件、手段等;(3)结果(4)结果的分析、比较、评价、应用,提出的问题,今后的课题, 假设、启发、建议、预测等;(5)其他:不属于研究、研制、调查的主要目的,但具有重要的信息价值。

(一)引言部分

1.回顾研究背景

常用词汇有:review, summarize, present, outline, describe等。

This paper outlines some of the basic discusses about…….

2.阐明写作或研究目的

常用词汇有:purpose, attempt, aim等。另外还可以用动词不定式充当目的状语来表达。例如:

To investigate the mechanism of…….

2

3.介绍论文的重点内容或研究范围

常用的词汇有:study, present, include, focus, emphasize, emphasis, attention等。 Here we study the…….

This article includes a brief review of………

(二)方法部分

1.介绍研究过程

常用词汇有:test, study, investigate, examine, experiment, discuss, consider, analyze, analysis等。

We present an analysis of …….

2.说明研究或试验方法

常用词汇有:measure, estimate, calculate等。

We have developed a……model to estimate ……..

This study presents estimates of……..

(三)结果部分

1.展示研究结果

常用词汇有:show, result, present等。

We show this cell death to be dependent upon……

Our results suggest that……

2.介绍结论

常用词汇有:summary, introduce, conclude等。

By means of a series of examples, we conclude that……

(四)讨论部分

1.陈述论文的论点和作者的观点

常用词汇有:suggest, report, present, explain, expect, describe等。

The results suggest that……

In this study, we describe …….

2.阐明论证

常用词汇有:support, provide, indicate, identify, find, demonstrate, confirm, clarify等。

3.推荐和建议

常用词汇有:suggest, suggestion, recommend, recommendation, propose, necessity, necessary, expect等。

3


第二篇:怎么写SUMMARY 3800字

怎么写SUMMARY

概要(summary)是一种对原始文献(或文章)的基本内容进行浓缩的语义连贯的短文。它以迅速掌握原文内容梗概为目的,不加主观评论和解释,但必须简明、确切地表述原文的重要内容。

概要写作(summary writing)是一种控制性的作文形式,它能使学生通过阅读原文,吸收原文的文章结构与语言方面的长处,写出内容一致、结构近似、语言简洁的短文。另外,对培养学生善于抓住文章重点的能力也有很大帮助,有利于他们在实际写作中避免面面俱到,事无巨细,一一罗列的不良倾向。这种写作既要准确理解原文,又要能综合概括;既能培养欣赏能力,又能训练书面表达能力。因此,用英文写概要,对学习英语写作的学生来说,不失为一种切合实际的方法。

下面谈谈怎么写好英文概要。

1)细读原文。首先要仔细阅读全篇作品,然后对作品进行整体分析,掌握原文总的意思和结构,明确全文的主题(the maintheme)和各段的段落大意(the main idea)。

2)弄清要求。搞清楚是写全文概要,还是写某一部分的概要,或者就某些问题写出要点。

3)列出原文要点。分析原文的内容和结构,将内容分项扼要表述并注意在结构上的顺序。在此基础上选出与文章主题密切相关的部分。

4)草拟写作提纲并写出初稿。将挑选出的要点作为框架草拟详细的提纲,以所列的提纲为依据写出概要的初稿。在写作时要特别注意下面几点:

(1)概要应包括原文中的主要事实(main facts);略去不必要的细节(unnecessary details)。

(2)安排好篇幅的比例。概要应同原文保持协调,即用较多的文字写重要内容,用较少的文字写次要内容。

(3)注意段落的连贯和句子的衔接。要用适当的转折词语贯通全文,切忌只简单地写出一些互不相干的句子。

(4)尽可能用自己的话来写,但不排斥用原文的某些词句。

(5)计算词数,看是否符合规定的词数要求。

如何写一篇文章的概要?---《英语写作手册》相关章节的翻译

概要是对一篇文章的主题思想的简单陈述。它用最简洁的语言概括了原文的主题。写概要主要包括三个步骤:(1)阅读;(2)写作;(3)修改成文。 第一步:阅读

A.认真阅读给定的原文材料。如果一遍不能理解,就多读两遍。阅读次数越多,你对原文的理解就越深刻。

B.给概要起一个标题。用那些能概括文章主题思想的单词、短语或短句子作为标题。也可以采用文中的主题句作为标题。主题句往往出现在文章的开头或结尾。一个好标题有助于确定文章的中心思想。

C.现在,就该决定原文中哪些部分重要,哪些部分次重要了。对重要部分的主要观点进行概括。

D.简要地记下主要观点——主题、标题、细节等你认为对概括概要重要的东西。 第二步:动手写作

A. 概要应该只有原文的三分之一或四分之一长。因此首先数一下原文的字数,然后除以三,得到一个数字。概要的字数可以少于这个数字,但是千万不能超过这个数字。

B. 概要应全部用自己的话完成。不要引用原文的句子。

C. 应该遵循原文的逻辑顺序。这样你就不必重新组织观点、事实。

D. 概要必须全面、清晰地表明原文所载的信息,以便你的读者不需翻阅原文就可以完全掌握材料的原意。

E. 写概要时可以采用下列几种小技巧:

1) 删除细节。只保留主要观点。

2) 选择一至两个例子。原文中可能包括5个或更多的例子,你只需从中筛选一至二个例子。

3) 把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子。如果材料中描述某人或某事用了十个句子,那么你只要把它们变成一两句即可。

4) 避免重复。在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会重复论证说明。但是这在概要中是不能使用的。应该删除那些突出强调的重述句。

5) 压缩长的句子。如下列两例:

“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.” 可以概括为:”He was very brave in battle.”

“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.” 可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.”

6) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句。请看下面的例子:

“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and

bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.”

可以概括为:”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.”

7) 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如:

“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.”

可以概括为:”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.”

8) 使用最短的连接词。比如,可以使用but, then, thus, yet, though,不能使用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等较长的连接词。通常,使用分号就能够达成使用连接词的效果。

9) 文章中的第一人称说的话通常在概要中转换成第三人称,从而把大段的对白简化,比如:

Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful? like eating cardboard or sand? just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.”

可以用第三人称概括为:

Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless.

第三步:修改成文

草稿拟好以后,对它进行修改。首先,与原文比较看是否把所有重要的观点都概括了,概要中的观点是否与原文中的完全一致。其次,如果概要中出现了不必要

的词汇、短语或长句子,删除它们。第三,检查拼写、语法和标点符号的错误。最后,保持语言简单明了。

经过上述步骤和方法,一篇概要就可以完成了。

更多类似范文
┣ seller summury 2600字
┣ closing argument 5700字
┣ resume suggestion 3800字
┣ Mastercam和UG之心得体会 4000字
┣ 更多resume范文
┗ 搜索类似范文