Unit 3, book4
Longing for a New Welfare System
1 Language Points:
A welfare client is supposed to cheat. (Para.1)
Meaning: People believe that a welfare client cheats / is cheating.
be supposed to:
1) be generally believed or expected to be or do
I haven't seen it myself, but it's supposed to be a great movie.
She's supposed to have had five hundred pairs of shoes. 据说她有500双鞋。
2) be expected or required to do or be sth. according to a rule, a custom, an arrangement, etc.
You're supposed to buy a ticket, though not many people do.
You're supposed to ask the teacher if you want to leave the room.
Faced with sharing a dinner of raw pet food with the cat, many people in wheelchairs I know bleed the system for a few extra dollars. (Para.1)
Meaning: In the face of sharing uncooked pet food with the cat, many of my wheel-chaired acquaintances have to lie about their circumstances, thus getting a little extra money from welfare givers.
face with：meet (sth. bad or difficult)
Faced with the evidence, he had to confess. 面对证据，他不得不坦白。
…bleed the system for a few extra dollars…(Para.1)
Meaning: force the system to pay a few extra dollars
I have opted to live a life of complete honesty. So instead, I go out and drum up some business and draw cartoons. (Para. 2)
Meaning: I have chosen to live a completely honest life. So I don't lie to get some extra welfare money, but I go out and try hard to get some business and draw cartoons.
opt to do sth.: choose to do sth.; decide to do sth. in preference to anything else
When he left school, he opted to go to college and study for a degree, rather than getting a job straight away. 毕业后他选择上大学读学位，而不是直接工作。
…drum up some business … (Para.2)
drum up: try hard to get support, customers, business, etc.
He had flown to the north of the country to drum up support for the campaign. 他飞到该国北方去为竞选争取支持。
The department store is offering big discounts to drum up business. 这家百货商店正提供很大的折扣来招揽生意。
Oh, I'm tempted to get paid under the table. (Para. 2)
Meaning: I feel a desire to make money secretly /to be paid without being known to
under the table: in a secret way
They were charged with taking money under the table. 他们被指控私下拿钱。
Capitals will be the major consideration under table.资金将是需私下考虑的主要内容。
Note: This expression is used mainly in American English; the usual British expression is "under the counter".
But even if I yielded to that temptation, big magazines are not going to get involved in some sticky situation. (Para.2)
Meaning: But even if I couldn't resist / gave in to that temptation and wanted to be paid without being known to caseworkers, big magazines I am working for won't agree to get themselves into trouble by telling lies for my sake. yield to:
1) stop resisting (sth.)
I yielded to an impulse. 我听凭一时的冲动行事了。
The government refused to yield to the hostage takers' demand. 政府拒绝答应人质挟持者的要求。
2) (formal) be replaced by sth.
Old-fashioned methods yielded to new technology. 老式的方法已被新技术所取代。
Radio has long been under pressure to yield to television. 收音机长期处于被电视机取代的压力之中。
Very high-profile. (Para.2)
Meaning: The big magazines appear to be open and above-board as they honestly report to the welfare caseworkers the amount of money I make. Please note the sarcastic tone of the writer.
When we refer to somebody as a high-profile person or something as a high-profile event, we mean they attract a lot of attention or publicity
Deep down, caseworkers know that they are being made fools of by many of their clients, and they feel they are entitled to have clients bow to them as compensation. (Para.3)
Meaning: In their true feelings, caseworkers know that their clients are fooling them for extra money, and, in return, they feel they have the right to get these welfare beneficiaries to behave humbly.
deep down: in sb.'s true feeling; in fact rather than by appear under the table
Deep down (inside you), I know you love me really. 在你心底里，我知道你是真心爱我的。 He knew, deep down, that he would have to admit his guilt. 他心里明白他将不得不认罪。
… they are being made fools of by many of their clients … (Para. 3)
make a fool of sb.: trick sb. into behaving foolishly
He'd been made a fool of. 他被人骗了。
Your brother is making a fool of you. 你兄弟在愚弄你。
make a fool of oneself: behave in a way that makes other people think that one is
silly or lacking in good judgment
He was drinking and making a fool of himself. 他喝酒时，出尽了洋相。
…feel they are entitled to have clients … (Para.3)
be entitled to: have the right to have or do sth.
You will be entitled to your pension when you reach 65. 你到65岁时，可以享受养老金。 Everyone's entitled to his or her own opinion. 每个人都有权发表自己的意见。
She read a poem entitled "The Apple Tree".
I'm not being bitter. (Para. 3)
Meaning: I am not feeling angry deliberately / on purpose.
The structure “be being + adjective / noun” is used to talk about action and behavior.
You're being stupid. (= You're doing stupid things.)
I was being very careful. (= I was doing something very carefully.)
We do not use this structure to talk about feelings.
I'm happy just now. (Not I'm being happy just now.)
I was very depressed when you phoned. (Not I was being depressed…)
… a detective in shorts. (Para. 3)
shorts: n. trousers that end above the knees or reach the knees, which is often
worn by children or by adults in hot weather, and when relaxing or playing sports tennis shorts 网球短裤
She put on a pair of shorts and a T-shirt.她穿上运动短裤和T恤衫。
…saw some new posters pasted on the wall. (Para.4)
see sth. done
see sb. do(doing) sth.
This was my cue to beg. (Para.7)
Meaning: This remark was a signal made by Suzanne for me to ask for forgiveness.
…I talked back. (Para.7)
talk back: answer sb. rudely, esp. sb. in authority
Don't talk back. It's rude. 别顶嘴，不礼貌。
Children who talk back are regarded as cheeky and disrespectful. 顶嘴的孩子被认为是又厚脸皮又不懂礼貌。
Suzanne tries to lecture me about repairs…(Para.9)
criticize sb. or tell them how one thinks they should behave, esp. when it is done in an annoying way
Don't start lecturing me! 别开始教训我！
He's always lecturing me about the way I dress. 他老说我穿着不得体。
n. a long angry talk that sb. gives to one person or a group of people when they have done sth. wrong
I know I should stop smoking — don't give me a lecture about it. 我知道我应该戒烟——别跟我长篇大论。
…which is always breaking down…(Para.9)
break down: (of a machine or vehicle) stop working because of a fault
The telephone system has broken down. 电话线路出故障了。
The car broke down on the way to the airport, and I had to get a taxi. 轿车在去飞机场的途中抛锚了，我只好叫了一辆出租车。
… I've heard that you put a lot more miles on that wheelchair than average. (Para.9)
Meaning: I've heard that you use your wheelchair more often than the average clients do. No wonder that's why your wheelchair is always breaking down.
I'm an active worker, not a vegetable. (Para.10)
1) (figurative) a person who is physically alive but not capable of much mental or physical activity, for example because of an accident or illness (This usage can be offensive.)
Severe brain damage turned him into a vegetable. 严重的大脑损伤使他变成了植物人。
2) a person who has a boring life
Since losing my job I've felt like a vegetable. 丢了工作后，我觉得人都变呆了。
…so I can get around in a wheelchair. (Para.10)
get around: (BrE also get about) move from place to place or from person to person
She gets around with the help of a stick. 她拄着拐杖，四处走动。
Bad news gets around quickly. 坏消息传播得很快。
Government cuts in welfare have resulted in hunger and suffering… (Para.11)
result in: make sth. happen
The cyclone has resulted in many thousands of deaths. 这场龙卷风使几千人丧生。
These policies resulted in many elderly and disabled people suffering hardship. 这些
She looked into every corner in search of unreported appliances, … (Para.13)
look into: examine
Police are looking into the disappearance of two children. 警察正在调查两名儿童失踪的事情。 in search of: looking for
Many of the refugees are traveling to the north of the region in search of food and shelter. 许多难民正奔向该地区北部，寻找食物和庇护所。
but there was always a thick pile of forms to fill out at the end of each visit, accounting for every penny. (Para.13)
Meaning: … but I had to fill out a lot of forms at the end of each visit, explaining how I spent the money I had got from the welfare system.
fill out: (also fill in) complete (a form, etc.) by writing information
The policeman filled out a parking ticket. 警察填好一张违章停车罚款单。
account for: be or give a reason for (sth. or doing sth.)
He accounted for the missing items as lost but found them later. 他解释说那些不见了的东西丢失了，但后来又找到了。
I find it very difficult to account for the fact that two of our best students failed the exam. 我觉得很难解释为什么两名最好的学生考试不及格。
…building up my market. (Para.14)
build up: create or develop
She's built up a very successful business. 她建立起一家成功的企业。
We've built up good relationships with our clients. 我们与客户建立了良好的关系。
It's impossible to jump off welfare… (Para. 14)
Meaning: It is not possible to shift away from welfare and depend on oneself all of a sudden.
…not have to go through an embarrassing situation… (Para.14)
go through: experience or suffer
He would go through fire and water for his country.为了国家他赴汤蹈火也在所不惜。
He has already gone through many sufferings. 他已经受了许多苦难。
There needs to be a lawyer who can act as a champion for the rights of welfare clients, because the system so easily lends itself to abuse by the welfare givers as well as by the clients. (Para.15)
Meaning: Welfare clients need a lawyer who can enthusiastically support, defend and fight for their rights, as the system can be so easily abused by both parts — the welfare givers and the clients.
There needs to be a lawyer who can act as a champion for the rights of welfare clients, … (Para.15) Notice the word “there” is followed by the verb “needs”. Some other verbs can also be used in this way. For example:
There seems to be some problems.
Could you be quiet? There happens to be a lecture going on.
There tends to be jealousy when a new little brother or sister comes along.
In a small town in Germany there once lived a poor shoemaker.
There remains nothing more to be done.
Suddenly there entered a strange figure dressed all in black.
There followed an uncomfortable silence.
With some verbs (e.g. say, think, feel, report, understand, presume), the passive structure is possible with “there”.
There are thought to be more than 3, 000 different languages in the world.
There was said to be disagreement between the Prime Minister and the Home Secretary.
… so easily lends itself to abuse … (Para.15)
lend oneself to: be easily used for a particular activity or result
Her voice doesn't really lend itself well to blues singing.
Some problems do not lend themselves to financial solutions.
sit on: be an official member of a group of people that represent or control an organization
She sat on the company's board for five years. 她在公司的董事会当了5年董事。
He sits on a number of committees. 他是好几个委员会的委员。
How many people sit on the commission? 这个委员会有多少委员？
… one step at a time? (Para.16)
one / a step at a time: going slowly
Let's take things a / one step at a time. 让我们一步一步地做这些事。
One step at a time, you'll finally go through the whole thing.
Someday people like me will thrive under a new system that will encourage them, not seek to convict them of cheating. (Para.17)
Meaning: One day in the future, disabled people like me living on welfare will do well and get successful if the old system is transformed into a new one that encourages its clients instead of seeking to prove them to be cheating.
… not seek to convict them of cheating. (Para.17)
convict sb. of
He was convicted of fraud / robbery / theft. 他被判犯有诈骗罪/抢劫罪/盗窃 n. a person who has been found guilty of a crime and sent to prison
an escaped convict 一名逃犯